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Versare Corporation
Versare Corp., 1925-1928; Albany, New York; Cincinnati Car Corp., 1928-1931; Albany, New York & Cincinnati, Ohio
 
Associated Builders
General Car & Coach Co., Albany, NY
     

Continued from Page 1

A follow-up advertisement appeared in the Electric Railway Journal’s October 8, 1927 issue:

“Versare Interprets the Convention's Message, Meeting the requirements of better transportation in the great majority of American cities

“Comfort - Capacity - A ‘happy medium’ perfectly coordinated

“The VERSARE Six-Wheel Rail Unit:

1. Weighs only 13,500 lbs.
2. Built entirely of Duralumin and light alloy steel.
3. Four wheel, single motor automotive type drive bogey in rear. Two wheel automotive type single motor drive axle in front. Patented Versare Equalizer — floating ease in riding.
4. All body sections interchangeable with standard replacement units. Drive truck and motors removable complete in half an hour.
5. High speed with safety.
6. Maximum passenger capacity with exceptional comfort. 32 seated, 32 standing.
7. Silent operation.
8. Westinghouse Standard Motors, control and safety air brake equipment. Internal band brakes.
9. Highest quality standard equipment throughout.

“The Versare Six-Wheel Highway Unit:

1. No chassis.
2. Duralumin rigid truss construction in accordance with railroad practice.
3. Body maintenance practically eliminated.
4. Unit Power Plant mounted at rear. Quickly removable without crane.
5. Radiator and fan units separate from power plant. Easily removed from side of body.
6. No engine heat, oil or gas fumes can enter body.
7. Body built of interchangeable units identical with those of the eight-wheel vehicle.
8. Versare Hercules - Westinghouse gas electric drive. Two 33-hp. vehicle traction type motors.
9. Turning circle of 56 feet.
10. Electric brake. Westinghouse air service brakes and mechanical emergency brake.
11. Versare Patented Equalizer at rear drive axles — floating ease in riding.

“Details of VERSARE design that form the basis of a NEW standard in operating economy.

“How Versare engineers have practically eliminated body maintenance.

“At least one installation of Versare transportation units has completed between 125 and 150 thousand miles of service with absolutely no body maintenance of any kind.

“Transportation men will agree that this is a record. How has it been accomplished?

“Briefly, Versare engineers have developed and perfected an entirely new method of body building based on the girder-like truss construction well-known to railway designers. Both the rail and highway units are built of standard interchangeable sections under this plan, and by making use of the most recent developments in light-weight Duralumin alloys it has been possible to use sections of generous proportions while drastically reducing the total weight of the structure.

“Versare Units in service immediately strike the observer as being perfectly rigid. The usual rattles and squeaks do not develop. Windows and doors operate smoothly and quietly after years of running. There is, indeed, practically no depreciation as at present understood, and even after the vehicle is finally written off the books, the Duralumin commands an excellent scrap price.

“VERSARE CORPORATION Albany, N. Y.”

The prototype entered testing during the summer of 1927 and the first production coach was delivered to the Grand Rapids Railway Co., of Grand Rapids, Michigan in November of 1927 (although it’s unknown if any further coaches were ordered by the firm).

The December, 1927 issue of the Electric Railway Journal reported that the new coach had been developed by the Grand Rapids Railway’s president, Louis J. DeLamarter, and Versare over a two-year period, although the fact was curiously never mentioned by Versare.

The following full-page Versare Corp. advertisement appeared in the May 5, 1928 issue of the Electric Railway Journal:

“The successful performance of Versare Highway Units under practically every operating condition in New York, Boston, Montreal, Albany and elsewhere evidences the sound engineering and fine construction embodied in these Units.

“They enable electric railway companies and subsidiaries to tap profitable territories and maintain schedules in crowded city traffic and over long stretches of interurban highways.

“Their attractiveness, convenience, comfort and safety are important factors in holding the good will of the traveling public and increasing patronage. All space is utilized with ample capacity for 37 seated passengers and 37 standees. Seats are wide and comfortable. Features that appeal to passengers are absence of engine fumes, vibration and noise, wide doors, low steps, unobstructed view, convenient push-buttons, separate entrance and exit doors, and various other refinements, add to the appeal.

“The Versare Six-Wheel Highway Unit makes efficient use of the tinv ving, comfort-providing 'circulating load.'

“The rear cross seat above engine. Notice that this is normal and comfortable in height. Orasti insulation, against noise, heat, and fumes, precludes any trouble from these sources.

“Remarkable Construction

“Side view of Versare frame, showing girder construction, extruded side posts, and wheel housings. This entire fabric is of Duralumin and Aluminum. Rear view of Versare frame showing engine mounting and heavy channels affording protection at corners. When engine is installed this channeling extends clear across the back behind the bumper.

“Particularly pleasing to the experienced engineer is the rigid, trussed girder construction of the Versare body. It follows the design of the strongest modern bridges, securing utmost rigidity and stiffness.

“The body framework is sectionalized. Should damage occur entire units are easily replaced without dismantling the rest of the body.

“The girders, angles and castings are made of Duralumin - light, yet enormously strong; comparable to finest steel; and so extensively used in dirigibles. The side posts are of extruded Duralumin with a tensile strength of 55,000 lbs. Panels, and housings are Aluminum.

“The 125 hp. gas-electric power unit is the latest development with quick pick-up, extraordinary hill climbing ability under full load and fast. The power equipment is in the rear, well protected and very accessible.

“Showing engine installed and manner in which panel lifts up for inspection or removal. The fact that Versare Highway Units have covered 500,000 miles without one dollar expense for body maintenance speaks volumes for Versare Unit construction.

“General Specifications:

Engine: Heavy duty 6 cylinder 25 hp.
Electrical Equipment: Versare-Westinghouse Type 177 generator; two Versare-Westinghouse 33 hp.
vehicle type motors; Westinghouse standard vehicle control equipment.
Brakes: Westinghouse Air on four wheels. Mechanical hand brakes on two wheels. Resistor for electric braking in emergency.
Axles: Versare-Eaton, both front and rear. Patented Versare Equalizer on rear truck.
Wheels: Van Type 728.
Body: Duralumin truss construction.
Doors: Front, 36 in. duplex outward folding. Rear, 29 in. dual duplex outward folding with or without Automatic Treadle control.
Length: #1 48 ft. overall. Wheel-base 180 in. #2 29 ft. 11 in. wheelbase / 195 in.
Width: 8 ft. overall. Aisle width 21 in. at seat base. 24 in. at seat back.
Height: 9 ft. overall. Headroom 6 ft. 6 in.
Turning Circle: 56 ft. – 59 ft.

“We will gladly tell you more about this remarkable transportation vehicle on request.

Versare Corporation Albany, N. Y.

“Side view of rear truck showing the Versare Patent Equalizer which distributes road shocks over four springs and achieves 'floating ease in riding.

“Plan view of rear truck showing arrangement of drive motors and their method of suspension in trunnions.

“Westinghouse power plant. Smooth, quiet and more powerful to give highway speed and snappy pickup. This is in position of mounting. Note extreme accessibility of all vital parts.”

Albany’s United Traction Company operated at least 1 Versare on its Western Avenue line and placed orders for three more, the November 24, 1928 issue of Electric Railway Journal reporting:

“The Capital Traction Company, controlled by the United Traction Company, Albany, N.Y., has applied to the Public Service Commission for authority to issue notes for the purchase of three Versare Electric Motor Buses for use in the operation of its Troy Bus Line.”

Other 6-wheeled Versares were purchased by surface transportation companies in Queens, Montreal, Boston, Cleveland, Providence, Salt Lake City and perhaps additional cities. Production of the firm’s six-wheeled type is estimated to be somewhere around 50-60 coaches (I could document 56 units using the resources available to me, not including the advertisements touting reorders from Montreal and Boston (Keith Marvin believes the number was closer to 100).

Apparently Grand Rapids was not the only city working with Versare, another ‘prototype’ was placed on the streets of Salt Lake City, Utah at about the same time as the Grand Rapids coach.

The largest user of Verare 6-wheeled coaches was the Surface Transportation Corp. of New York City who operated 28 Versare and Versare/Cincinnati coaches in the Bronx, the sale was reported in the Business & Finance section of the January 20, 1928 issue of the New York Times:

"SIX-WHEEL BUSES FOR BRONX LINES; Third Avenue Road Announces Ninety-two of This Type Have Been Ordered. OUTLINES FULL PROGRAM More Than $1,000,000 to Be Spent for Vehicles for Use on New Routes, It Says.

“Following approval by the Board of Estimate of the plans and specifications for buses to be used in the Bronx by the Surface Transportation Corporation, W.E. Huff. President of the Third Avenue Railway Company, of which the bus corporation is a subsidiary, announced yesterday the company’s plans for bus service under its franchise award.

“More than a million dollars, Mr. Huff said, would be spent for buses in the Bronx, four types of which will be used. Contracts have been made with the Six-Wheel Company for twenty-six double-deck and thirty-six single-deck buses of the six-wheel type; with the Versare Corporation for twenty-eight six-wheel gas-electric single deck buses and with the American Car & Foundry Company for fourteen single-deck buses of the dual-wheel type. The work of manufacturing these buses in underway and they will be placed in operation immediately after delivery.

“Mr. Huff said that equipment of a large repair shop had been started on company property on West Farms Road near East 172d Street. Operation will be out of two garages, one on the east side and one on the west side of the Bronx. The east side garage, purchased recently, is at 173d Street and West Farms Road.”

The contract with the Surface Transportation Co. (Third Ave. Railway subsidiary) dated October 31, 1927 states Versare Corp. was to receive $302,820 for the 28 twenty-eight six-wheel gas-electric single deck buses – a per unit price of $10,815.

The Boston Elevated Railway Company purchased 7 six-wheelers, albeit with General Electric motors, in place of the Westinghouse units favored by other operators, the May 8, 1928 issue of the New York Times reporting:

“Buses Ordered for Boston

“Orders for twenty-eight electric-driven equipments for gasoline buses have been placed with the General Electric Company by the Boston Elevated Railway Company. Ten of the buses will be built by the Twin Coach Company, of Kent, Ohio; eleven by the American Car and Foundry Motors Company of New York and seven by Versare Corporation of Albany, N. Y.”

The November 24, 1928 issue of Electric Railway Journal states that the Boston Elevated Company had place an additional order for Versare 6-wheelers, although no number is given:

“Boston is about to increase the size of its fleet of Versares. For a number of months the Boston Elevated Company has operated a fleet of Versare Gas-Electric Coaches. The performance of this fleet of light-weight, large-capacity transportation units in handling peak loads, maintaining schedules and keeping maintenance costs down to bed rock has demonstrated clearly the advantages of Versare engineering. As a result, the Boston Elevated has ordered more Versares.

“Versares are distinctively an engineering product. They utilize every square foot of space to produce revenue. Their patented bridge type truss construction, with the use of Duralumin, makes possible large-capacity, light-weight passenger-carrying vehicles, rigid and strong. No floor, roof or panels are necessary to give required strength.”

A 1928 issue of Bus Transportation states the NETC of Boston ordered 5 Versare buses:

“New England Transportation Company, Boston, Mass., subsidiary of the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, has purchased five intercity type Versare buses.”

Versare and its successor constructed 40 electric-only trolley coaches for the Utah Light and Traction Company of Salt Lake City, Utah; the Louisville Railway Co. of Louisville, Kentucky, the Chicago Surface Lines of Chicago, Illinois, New Orleans Public Service Inc. of New Orleans, Louisana, and the United Traction Co. of Albany, New York.

Thanks to transportation historians Van C. Wilkins and John P. Hoschek we have good service history of the 11 Versare and 7 Versare/Cincinnati trolley coaches (electric only) purchased by the Utah Light & Traction Co. between 1928 and 1930. The quotes that follow are taken from Wilkins exhaustive article on UL&Tco that appeared in the January 1987 issue of Motor Coach Age (Vol., No. 1).

After Fageol declined to modify their trolley coach to meet the requirements of Utah Light & Power, the firm turned to Versare, who were more than happy to fulfill the requirements which included:

“…placing the exit door in front of the rear wheels, the provision of dynamic (regenerative) braking, two 50-horsepower motors in place of the 36-horsepower motors thought adequate by the Fageols, and controls similar to those of autos of the day to facilitate driver training.”

The first of the ten (ordered) 43-seat 6-wheel Versares reached Salt Lake City in September of 1928. Utah Light & Power Co. christened them ‘Salt Lake City Electric Coaches’ (as opposed to trolley coaches or trolley buses) and had them painted a combination amber brown/canary yellow with a terra-cotta roof in order to distinguish them from the orange streetcars they replaced.

A number of problems developed with the ten coaches, which were the first straight electric coaches built by Versare.

If a pole left the wire the dynamic braking ceased to function, so new designs for frogs had to be devised to prevent de-wirements. A problem with passengers receiving electric shocks as they boarded or left the vehicles was solved by installation of drag chains to discharge static electricity.

More serious were difficulties with the drive-shafts of the trunnion-mounted rear axles, which despite the use of pneumatic tires had a tendency to fail. An identical eleventh coach on exhibit at the 1929 AERA convention was hurriedly shipped from Cleveland to Utah to handle the increased ridership.

Engineers decided to convert the double rear-axled Versares to a single rear axle configuration with double rims/tires, and the failures ceased.

In March of 1929 the Cincinnati Car Corp. shipped a lightweight 4-wheel Cincinnati/Versare all-electric trolley-coach demonstrator to Salt Lake City. Similar in appearance to the earlier Versares, the new coach included numerous upgrades including General Electric motors and controllers (earlier coaches were fitted with Westinghouse equipment) and an improved dynamic braking system.

A demonstrator supplied by Twin-Coach (Fageol) for evaluation also proved satisfactory so Utah Light & Power split their 14 coach order between Cincinnati Car and Twin Coach. The first cars entered into service in December of 1929 and along with the two purchased demonstrators remained in service for most of the next decade. The Twin Coach models were relatively trouble free, but rear-axle failures plagued the Cincinnati/Versare units although UL&P engineers eventually sorted the problem out.

Versare and its successor Cincinnati Car Corp., are thought to have built at least 40 all-electric trolley buses between 1928 and 1930.

Utah Light & Power purchased 11 Versares and 8 Cincinnati trolley coaches for a total of 19 units.

New Orleans Public Service Inc. transit roster indicates they placed 11 Cincinnati 4-wheel Trolley buses (#1202-#1212) into service during 1930.

The Chicago Surface Lines of Chicago, Illinois, commenced trolley bus service on April 17, 1930 with 74 coaches supplied by Twin Coach, Brill, St Louis Car, ACF, and Cincinnati Car. Only two units of the initial 74 were Cincinnati Car units (#123-124). During 1931 another 40 were purchased from Twin Coach, St Louis Car, and Cincinnati Car of which four (#161-164) were supplied by Cincinnati Car, placing the total number supplied at 6.

The Louisville Railway Co. of Louisville, Kentucky owned 12 pieces of Versare equipment and had a sample aluminum-bodied streetcar built by Cincinnati Car Corp.

The Nov 1929 issue of Electric Railway Journal states that Knoxville Power Co., Knoxville, Tenn. purchased four ‘Versare’ 42-passenger trolley coaches from the Cincinnati Car Corp.

April 1930 issue of the Electric Railway Journal mentions “a pair of Cincinnati Car Corporation trucks for the Cincinnati Street Railway”.

The March 22,1931 issue of Electric Railway Journal stated that Baltimore, Maryland’s United Railways and Electric Co. order 150 new streetcars of which 50 were to be constructed by Cincinnati Car Co.

Sales orders for busses in 1929 included gas-electric busses for the Cincinnati Street Railway Company. These may have been the only gas-powered vehicles built by the Cincinnati Car Corporation. It is not known if this model saw active service. Between 1929 and 1931 sales of trolley-coaches totaled nine cars.

The March 2, 1929 issue of the Electric Railway Journal included a small item on the Versare:

“SEATING 33 or 35 passengers, having extremely fast acceleration (3 miles per hour per second up to 12 miles per hour), this four-wheel gas-electric coach fills a place long vacant in city transportation needs. For outlying metropolitan service having a fluctuating load requiring maximum capacity in a small unit, or for maximum load requirements of smaller city properties, where traffic movement is always at a faster schedule speed than is possible m more heavily congested districts, this Versare Transportation unit fits in! Its quick pick-up insures extremely fast smooth starts, eliminating in the passenger's mind that impression of slowness, present in most coaches as other vehicles pass him. This one feature alone will be a means of retaining and increasing revenue riders.

“All construction details are identical with other Versare Units, assuring the same absence of body and other maintenance items.

“POINTS
-Fastest and smoothest acceleration of any coach on the road, facilitating increased schedule speeds.
-Unusual hill climbing ability: 15 miles per hour on 12% grade, fully loaded.
-Unusual accessibility of power unit from all sides.

“One of the Versare Coaches of this type started on route shown below. Another will start very shortly on a Western Tour. Special stops along the route may be arranged by a wire to the company.

“As the public has a quaint habit of demanding luxurious transportation at old-fashioned prices. That demand can be met with the right kind of rolling stock and the right kind of operation. We do not advocate street cars where coaches should be used—nor try to sell coaches where street cars will do the job. But we will welcome the opportunity to submit to you a survey and plan— based on the right kind of transportation units— for we build both cars and coaches.

“Cincinnati cars are as modern as this morning, Versare Coaches have a distinctive passenger appeal — both bring a luxury to transportation that pays!

“THE CINCINNATI CAR CORPORATION, Winton Place, Cincinnati, Ohio”

Salt Lake City’s Utah Light & Traction Co. operated 10 Versare 6-wheel trolley coaches starting in 1928. Following Versare’s takeover by Cincinnati Car, they took delivery of a number the Cincinnati Car Corp.’s new 4-wheel coaches and had a few of the existing Versare 6-wheelers rebuilt with a single rear axle and dual rear wheels.

Electric Coach 311 was originally a Versare demonstrator with G.E. equipment and tandem rear axles (like the first ten). It passed to Cincinnati Car Co. and came to Salt Lake City in March of 1929 when it was the first coach rebuilt with a single rear axle and dual rear wheels in June of that year.

Cleveland operated at least 1

Montreal utilized 5 Versare 6-wheelers

Montreal Tram Co. Serial numbers: 801-805 Years acquisition: 1927 1928 Number of seats: 37 Engine: gasoline-electric (GE: gas-electric) Manufacturer: Versare Corporation, Albany, New York

The November 3, 1928 issue of Electric Railway Journal included a 3-page display ad announcing the planned purchase of 5 Versare Six-Wheelers:

“The present fleet o£ Versares so satisfactorily meets every transportation requirement that Montreal Tramways Company has ordered more.

“The success of Versare Transportation Units in enlarging the service of electric traction companies in Boston, Cleveland, Montreal, Albany, Providence, New York and elsewhere can be duplicated in practically every other city.

“Fleets of Versare 6 wheel Units, operating under the direction of well-known traction companies, demonstrate their superiority over familiar types of buses and coaches.

“Versares are the allies of electric railways in meeting the requirements of mass transportation.

“The Versare radically differs from other vehicles in design, and construction. It is not a bus revamped! It is not an adaptation of a coach! The Versare Transportation Unit is the closest approach to the most successful type of modern electric street cars, with all the advantages of mobility and ease of operation of the automobile.

“The Versare comfortably carries 37 seated passengers and 37 standees. Has ample head, leg room and wide aisle. Permits circulating load — front entrance and side exit doors speed up running time.

“In construction the Versare is not approached by any other vehicle. Truss girder construction — same as skyscrapers, bridges and dirigibles — gives great strength and rigidity. Girders, angles and castings are made of Duralumin. Sectionalized body framework permits quick replacement in case of injury, without dismantling body.

“The enormous mileage covered by Versare units without any maintenance requirements speaks volumes for its rigid construction.

“The Versare is powered by a 125 hp. Gasoline engine with two 33 hp. motors, located in rear and very accessible. Absence of fumes, noise and vibration; easy control; air-brakes; quick pick-up, speed, hill-climbing ability under full load are a few features of this vehicle. Every electric railway official should give the Versare Highway Transportation Unit careful study.”

Patents - all filed by Oliver Francis Warhus and unassigned:

Universal Joint – US Pat. No. 1491763, Filed Apr 6, 1921 - Issued Apr 22, 1924

Patents - all filed by Oliver Francis Warhus and assigned to the Versare Corp.:

Propelling and Transmission Mechanism for Vehicles – US Pat. No.1661780, Filed Jan 31, 1925 - Issued Mar 6, 1928
Yoke – US Pat. No.1607374, Filed Sep 26, 1925 - Issued Nov 16, 1926
Double Truck Vehicle - US Pat. No.1666921, Filed Aug 30, 1924 - Issued Apr 24, 1928
Steering Mechanism for Vehicles - US Pat. No.1599152, Filed Oct 25, 1924 - Issued Sep 7, 1926
Steering Mechanism for Vehicles - US Pat. No. 1632460, Filed Apr 17, 1925 - Issued Jun 14, 1927
Spring Suspension for Vehicles – US Pat. No.1667275, Filed Aug 6, 1926 - Issued Apr 24, 1928
Vehicle - US Pat. No.1673786, Filed Aug 6, 1926 - Issued Jun 12, 1928
Building Unit - US Pat. No. 1799337, Filed Aug 6, 1926 - Issued Apr 7, 1931
Exhaust Muffler - US Pat. No. 1708002, Filed Mar 3, 1927 - Issued Apr 9, 1929

Patents - all filed by Oliver Francis Warhus and assigned to the Cincinnati Car Corp.:

Motor Vehicle - US1894075, Filed Nov 21, 1927 - Issued Jan 10, 1933

Versare was taken over by the Cincinnati Car Company, an old established streetcar builder, late in 1928, apparently to give Cincinnati Car a foothold in what it saw as a promising market for gas-electric and trolley buses. The United Press wire service announced the pending merger on October 12, 1928:

“CINCINNATI CAR CO. PROPOSES MERGER WITH ALBANY COMPANY

“Cincinnati. Ohio, Oct 12, (U.P.)— Stockholders of the Cincinnati Car Co. will be asked soon to approve a merger of their company with the Versare Corporation of Albany, N. Y. manufacturers of trackless trolleys, buses and trucks, it was announced today.

“Assets of the car company not directly connected with the manufacture of its products will not be included in the consolidation. Investments of the car company include 37,000 shares of Cincinnati Street Trolley Co. stock, equipment valued at more than $250,000 and the traction building.

“Directors of the local company have approved the general plans to merge with the Versare Corporation.”

The December 22, 1928 issue of the Electric Railway Journal announced the merger had been approved:

“Cincinnati Car-Versare Merger Approved

“Stockholders of the Cincinnati Car Company at a special meeting Dec. 14, gave unanimous approval to the merger agreement entered into by the directors of their company and those of the Versare Corporation of Albany, N. Y., as had been anticipated in announcements made a number of weeks ago.

“The two plants will be merged in the formation of the Cincinnati Car Corporation, with headquarters in Cincinnati. The engineering facilities and offices of the Albany corporation will be brought to the Ohio city, but physical property will remain at Albany.

“To effect the merger, the Cincinnati Car Corporation will purchase all the assets of the Cincinnati Car Company except 89,661 shares of stock of the Cincinnati Railway Company, the Traction Building in Cincinnati and the earnings and profits of the company for the year 1928. The stock will be distributed to stockholders of record at the close of business Dec. 31, 1928. The Cincinnati Car Company will receive for the assets which will be retained for manufacturing purposes, 125,000 shares $20 par value 7 per cent preferred stock and 50,000 shares of Class B stock without par value of the Cincinnati Car Corporation.

“The stockholders at their meeting authorized the formation of the Cincinnati Traction Building Company to accomplish a complete distribution of the assets of the Cincinnati Car Company. The Traction Building Company will be the holding concern for the building, surplus holdings, profits for 1928 and the fractional shares of stock of the Cincinnati Street Railway Company, and the 7 per cent and Class B shares of the newly formed corporation — which stocks can not be distributed in kind because of the small fractions into which they would have to be split. Authorization was given the directors to sell these undistributable assets and to make cash distributions of the proceeds.

“The agreement provides for issuance to the Versare Corporation of 10,000 shares of Class A stock without par value for all the property of that firm, including patent rights. This stock will be subordinate in claims for assets and earnings, to the 7 per cent preferred stock which the Cincinnati Car Company stockholders will receive. The Versare company will also receive 50,000 shares of Class B stock without par value as additional payment for its interest.”

The December 22, 1928 issue of the Electric Railway Journal provided additional details:

“Cincinnati Railway Holdings to Car Company Owners

“As noted elsewhere in this issue stockholders of Cincinnati Car Company have approved terms of merger with Versare Corporation, Albany, N.Y., into a new company, The Cincinnati Car Corporation. From the deal there will be excepted 89,661 shares of Cincinnati Street Railway stock, ownership of Cincinnati Traction Building Company and earnings and profits of Cincinnati Car Company for 1928. The stockholders of the Cincinnati Car Company have authorized the redistribution of Cincinnati Street Railway stock to Cincinnati Car Company stockholders, also the formation of the Cincinnati Traction Company Building, a holding company.”

When the firm merged with the Cincinnati Car Co. in 1928 Warhus became vice president in charge of engineering and sales for the new company.

H. L. Sanders is president of the Cincinnati Car Company, Cincinnati, Ohio, which was recently merged with the Versare Corporation, Albany, N. Y. Other officers are: A. L. Kasemeier, J. H. Elliott and A. F. Warhaus, vice-presidents; E. C. Bernhold, secretary-treasurer; and S.E. Ralph, assistant secretary-treasurer.

A trolley-coach version was marketed as well, initially having the same three-axle layout as the motor bus, but later revised with a single rear axle, and after sale of the company the trolley-coaches were sold under the Cincinnati name.

The February, 1930 issue of the Electric Railway Journal (Vol.74, No.2) included a detailed article on a new aluminum-bodied streetcar designed in collaboration with Albany’s United Traction Co.:

“New Albany Car Includes Many Innovations

“By R.S. Beers, Transportation Engineering Department, General Electric Company

“Differences of many kinds from conventional designs are found in the new car which has been operating for some little time on the lines of the United Traction Company, Albany, N. Y. The outstanding features are the extensive use of aluminum and its alloys in the body construction, and the driving motors and type of control.

“Particular care has been taken to make the car interior attractive. The miscellaneous parts of the electrical equipment, such as the control devices and switches, have been grouped and placed in a cabinet in each vestibule, with a convenient table top which not only conceals the equipment but provides a place for the operator to lay his transfers, punch and other paraphernalia.

“Tests made have shown that the service performance of the car is also somewhat unusual. The free running speed is 32 m.p.h., which is attained with a rate of acceleration on the control points of 3.5 m.p.h.p.s. Stops with the service brake are at the rate of 2.5 m.p.h.p.s., but when emergency braking is used, combining both air and magnetic devices, the rate obtained may be as high as 6 m.p.h.p.s.

“In order to obtain minimum weight, aluminum and its alloys have been used extensively in the car body and framing, many parts being made entirely of such materials. In the following discussion, where aluminum is referred to it is understood that the term includes not only pure aluminum, but the various alloys of the metal which have been brought out by the Aluminum Company of America and which have been designated by it as suitable for the part in question.

“The side sills are formed of 3 x 5 x 3/8-in. aluminum angles, extending in one continuous piece from front body corner posts to center exits and from center exits to rear vestibule corner posts on both sides of the car. The cross sills are formed of 4-in. aluminum channels. These are fastened to the underside of the side sill angle. The body end sills are formed of two 4-in. aluminum channels spaced on 10 5/16-in. centers, fastened to the body side sills with top and bottom center gusset plates riveted to the end sills and platform center sills.

“The center exits are reinforced with additional longitudinal sills and plates, forming a step well. A 4-in. aluminum channel is placed at the junction between the floor plate and the top step well. This runs the full length of the center exit and is connected by angle clips to the body cross sill and riveted to the floor plate. The center exits each have a floor cover plate of No. 9 gauge aluminum, flanged on the inside, and extending from within 4 1/2 in. of the center line of the car to the side sills and between the main body cross sills on the two sides of the center exit. The step hangers, risers and tread plates are formed of No. 7 gage aluminum flanged at the ends.

“General Dimensions of the Albany Car:

Length over all  
42 ft.  8 ½ in. 
Length over dashers   41 ft. 11 ½ in.
Length over body   32 ft. 11 7/8 in.
Length of platforms   4 ft. 5 13/16 in.
Bumper projection     4 ¼ in.
Truck centers   22 ft. 9 3/8 in.
Wheelbase of truck   5 ft. 4 in.
Wheel diameter     26 in.
Post centers     30 in.
Vestibule door openings between posts   4 ft. ¼ in.
Side exit door openings, between posts   2 ft.
11 3/16 in.
Width over all   8 ft. 2 ½ in.
Width over side sills   7 ft. 8 7/8 in.
Width over vestibule corner posts   7 ft.  3/8 in.
Width of aisle     22 in.
Width of seats     35 in.
Height, rail to top of trolley boards   9 ft. 11 3/16 in.
Height, rail to under side of sill     27 9/16 in.
Height, rail to bottom of apron     23 ¾ in.
Height, floor to headlining   6 ft. 9 ¾ in.
Height, rail to first step, end door     17 in.
Height, first step to platform, end door     15 in.
Height, rail to first step, center exit     13 in.
Height, first step to second step, center exit

9 ½ in.
Height, second step to car floor, center exit

9 ½ in.
Seating capacity
44 persons

“The open side of the platform is supported by a built-up knee, formed of No. 7 gage aluminum plate pressed to shape. The top and bottom edges of these knees are reinforced by a 2 x 2 x 1/4-in. steel angle riveted to them. The knees are further braced with a No. 7 gauge aluminum hanger plate, flanged on the inside edge for connecting to the knee and then around the outside of the side sill angle.

“The center sills at the front and rear ends of the car extend through the body end sill to the buffer sills, and are formed of 4-in. aluminum channels, connected with angle clips. The body end sills are further braced with two 1/4-in. pressed 5-in. aluminum channels laid flatways and extending from the end sill to the body bolsters being bolted to them. The closed side of the platform is formed by a continuation of the side sill angles. The platform ends at each end of the car are reinforced with No. 9 gauge aluminum nosing plates for the full width of the car and some 20 in. deep.

“Body Framing Is of Aluminum

“The body framing also is of aluminum construction. The material includes cast, rolled and extruded sections, heat treated. The side posts are of extruded "U" shaped sections extending from side sill to side plate, bolted and clipped to the side sills. The truss braces between each pair of side posts are of built-up construction, consisting of an aluminum belt rail or sash-rest casting, a body side plate casting and a No. 14 gage, heat-treated aluminum flanged plate riveted to the side sill angle. These individual truss frames form the side body construction and extend from body pier posts to center exit pier posts on both sides of the car. On the closed side of the vestibule cast aluminum belt rails are used, bolted to the corner vestibule posts and body pier posts. These castings have lugs which permit steel diagonal bracing to be used. The side body girder plates and letter-boards are of 18 gauge aluminum plates held in place by aluminum moldings bolted to the side posts.

“The body side posts are fastened to the roof carlins by cast aluminum shoes bolted to them, forming a continuous member from sill to sill. The side posts are finished on the inside of the car by extruded aluminum pilasters. The body corner piers and exit door piers are finished of pressed sheet aluminum pilasters.

Caption - The main controller is placed beneath the car floor, the master control being actuated by the left foot. The right foot governs the reverser and the air brake. Only auxiliary devices have to be controlled by hand.

Caption - Foot-operated control and extensive use of aluminum in the framing are features of this new car for the United Traction Company of Albany, N. Y.

“The Albany car is designed to permit of easy entrance and exit.

“The roof is of the arch type with vestibule hoods at each end. A channel shape extruded aluminum carlin is located at each side window and door post, and the ends of these carlins are fastened to the side plate bracing and window posts by cast aluminum brackets. The body roof is sheathed with 5/16-in. Haskelite the full width of the roof, and in five window-length sections. The hoods are sheathed with 5/16-in. Agasote cast in two pieces. The outside of the roof is covered with canvas.

“The center vestibule posts extend from the buffer sill to belt rail and are of extruded heat-treated aluminum, being tied to the corner posts by diagonals of 2 x 2 1/4-in. flat steel bar braces. The inside finish of the vestibule below the windows is formed by the aluminum equipment cabinet, while the side vestibule finish is of No. 18 gage aluminum plate. A sign box of cast aluminum is built into the vestibule hood.

“The headlining is No. 18 gage aluminum sheet curved to the contour of the roof, jointed on the carlins and covered with aluminum moldings. The advertising card racks are made of No. 18 gauge aluminum, forming an extension to the headlining sheets. The edges are covered with aluminum moldings grooved to take standard car cards the full length of the car body.

Caption - The controller, reverser, resistors and other equipment are placed under the car convenient for inspection from the pit or side.

“The doors are made of cherry. Post cappings, pier cover plates and moldings are of aluminum. The wainscoting below the windows consists of aluminum plate. The window stooling is an extension of 'the cast aluminum truss brace finished with cherry capping.

“Besides the main framing, aluminum is used in a number of details on the car. Spacer rings for the head lamps and housing rings for the marker lights are made of aluminum, as is the sander reservoir.

“The seats are of the walk-over type, with a welt divided back. The chair for the motorman is of the bucket type and is adjustable vertically and longitudinally. The seats are upholstered in brown Spanish

leather.

“The car body is mounted on Cincinnati passenger type arch bar trucks, with spring pedestal cantilever type journal boxes and combination rubber cushions and semi-elliptical spring bolster suspension. The trucks are designed to operate on curves with a minimum radius of 30 ft. The wheelbase is 5 ft. 4 in., and the wheel diameter is 26 in.

“General Specifications of Equipment of the Albany Car

Type of unit  
  one man, motor, passenger, city 
Door mechanism     double-end, double truck
Number of seats     44 
Builder of car body     Cincinnati Car Corp.
Weight
    32,000 lb. 
Body
    Aluminum
Roof      arch
Doors Folding     center and end
Air brakes     General Electric, foot-operated
Axles
    special
Car signal system
    Consolidated buzzer and single stroke bells
Compressors     General Electric CP-27B
Conduit      flexible duct 
Control     General Electric PCM
Couplers     Rail Way, standard drawbar
Destination signs     Hunter, end and side
Door Mechanism     Consolidated Car Heating Co., treadles at center doors
Fare boxes     Johnson, electrically operated
Finish
    Ripolin
Floor covering     Flexolith, 1/2 in.
Gears and pinions     General Electric, heat-treated
Glass     Protex, 3/4 in. for vestibule, DSA for body
Hand brakes
    Cincinnati Car Corp.
Gongs     Crewson pneumatic
Hand straps
    Leather, white sanitary grips
Heat insulation     Cork 
Heaters
    20 inclosed, 500 watts, thermostatic control
Headlights     Golden Glow
Headlining
    Aluminum, 18 gauge
Interior trim     Nickel-plated, satin finish
Journal bearings
    Hyatt roller
Journal boxes     3 in. x 6 in.
Lamp fixtures
    Standard, 20 in series
Motors     Four, GE-265, inside hung
Painting scheme
    Red and cream
Roof material     Haskelite; Agasote in hoods
Safety car devices
     Safety Car Devices Co.
Sash     Curtain Supply Co., brass
Seats
    Hale & Kilburn Walkover
Seat spacing     30 in.
Seating material
    Brown Spanish leather
Slack adjusters     Turn buckles
Stanchions and rails
    Monel metal pipe
Steps

Stationary
Stop lights

Keystone
Step treads

Kass safety
Trolley catchers

Earlt
Trolley base

Ohio Brass Co.
Trucks

Cincinnati arch bar
Ventilators

Railway Utility Co., New Era
Wheels

Steel, 26 in. diameter
Window sash

Curtain Supply Co., brass

“Power for driving the car is obtained from four GE-265 motors, one on each axle. These motors are rated at 35 hp. each and make it possible to maintain a high schedule speed. The motors are of the standard, self -ventilated type, geared for a free running speed of 32 m.p.h. at 550 volts. The gear ratio is 68:15.

“Arrangements have been made for foot operation of the G.E. Type PCM control. In practice it has been found that this control has all the flexibility of the hand-operated Type K. The operator can choose practically any speed he desires by stopping on the resistance notches. This may be done by the movement of his foot on the control pedal. Since the brake is controlled with the other foot both hands are free for making change, punching transfers and similar purposes, thus reducing the duration of the stops.

“The control was developed to meet the requirements of street railways for faster acceleration without discomfort to the passengers. In general, this improvement has been obtained by increasing the number of resistance steps permitting small increments of accelerating current with a comparatively short time interval on each step and for the total operation. In normal service accelerations as high as 3.5 m.p.h.p.s. are secured. There are nine steps in series and nine in parallel on the main controller. The action is automatic, the master controller having three points, known as switching, series, and parallel. When the operator presses his foot down to the full parallel position the control notches up under the direction of an accelerating relay.

“The line breaker, contactors and all of the main control equipment are in a box underneath the car, while the foot-operated master controller is recessed into the toe board. The main contacts are locked in the off position when the reverse lever is removed, just as in the usual hand controller. Normally the acceleration of the car is controlled by the pedal, and, in addition, there is a pilot valve operated by the heel plate which cuts off power in an emergency and applies both air and magnetic brakes.

“The air brakes are of the straight air type with an emergency feature. The usual hand valve is replaced by a foot-operated control valve of the automatic lap type. The novel feature of this valve is that when the pedal is put in any braking position and held there, a definite pressure will be built up and maintained in the brake cylinder without moving the pedal back to a lap position. In other words, the amount of pressure built up depends on the distance the pedal is depressed. There is also a lock so that the pedal may be placed in the full service position and held there, as when the operator is changing ends.

“Supplementary braking is obtained by the magnetic track brakes. These consist of four electromagnets mounted between the wheels of each truck. Normally they clear the rail head but they can be lowered on the head and magnetized at the will of the operator. The magnets are energized directly from the trolley and are controlled through the intermediary of pneumatic valves. The retardation obtained by these brakes is thus independent of the motors and control. It does not in any way reduce the effectiveness of the air brakes.

“In an emergency both the air and magnetic brakes function together, such a combination allowing for very fast braking without the sacrifice of flexibility or ease of operation. Although the full braking effort is not needed at every stop the operator takes greater advantage of his high accelerating rate when he knows that he can follow more closely behind traffic and get a high rate of retardation if needed.

“A bell ringer, a sander and the magnetic track brake are each operated by individual hand valves. The supply of air to these valves is automatically cut off when the pedal is locked so that a passenger on the rear platform cannot tamper with them. Compressed air for operating the control and the auxiliaries is furnished by a CP-27, 15-cu.ft. compressor, suspended beneath the car.

“Two circuits, each consisting of twenty lamps in series, furnish illumination for the car interior and for the headlight, destination signs and markers. The lighting fixtures are of the dome type with provision for short-circuiting a defective lamp. A novel feature is that when the motor reverser is turned in changing ends the headlight and other indication lamps are reversed without further attention from the operator.

“Straight pneumatic control is used for the door at the motorman's platform, while the center door is handled with automatic treadle control. A four-position rotary valve enables the motorman to select the door- opening combination that he desires. A signal lamp in front of the motorman indicates whether the center door is closed. The door engines are of the direct stroke differential type mounted above the door. Each engine operates a two-leaf door.

“The signal buzzer is operated by a pull switch and a cord running down each side of the car. In addition there is a single stroke bell with a push button near the center door so that the passenger can signal the motorman.

“There is a conventional stop light on each end of the car, and in addition red lamps are placed over each door connected in the same circuit with the stop light. By this means automobile drivers as well as persons inside of the car, are warned that a stop is about to be made.

“The development of this new type of car was initiated by the United Traction Company of Albany, N. Y., which furnished unusual assistance and co-operation to the manufacturers in suggestions and practical demonstrations in operation. The car and trucks were built by the Cincinnati Car Corporation and the electrical equipment was furnished by the General Electric Company.”

Caption - Under side of the truck, showing the method of mounting the motors and wheel brakes. The double bars between the wheels are the shoes of the magnetic track brakes which may be pulled against the rails independently of the air brakes.

Versare had been taken over by the Cincinnati Car Company late in 1928, apparently to give Cincinnati Car a foothold in what it saw as a promising market for gas-electric and trolley buses.

Sales of Cincinnati’s interurban rail cars also continued into 1930, the Cincinnati & Lake Erie Railroad purchased 20 lightweight high-speed Cincinnati Car Corp. interurban cars.

Nov 1930 issue ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL:

“A Versare gas-electric bus in service in the Bronx system.

“On all lines the Third Avenue Railway System operates 177 buses, of which 133 are used in the Bronx and 44 in Westchester. New vehicles, consisting of Safeway six-wheel, A.C.F. and Versare gas-electric buses, were purchased for use on these systems, ranging in seating capacity from 56 to 23 passengers. On the two Concourse routes in the Bronx, 27 double-deck buses are used. In Westchester, six 41-passenger vehicles are operated on the White Plains-Tarrytown route, the remainder seating 29 passengers. The smaller, 23-passenger, buses are used generally in shuttle service in the Bronx.”

A number of factors contributed to the demise of the company, including the Great Depression and competition in the trolley-coach and gas-powered bus markets. Traditional customers that were able to avoid bankruptcy became judicious with their funds and purchased second hand railway equipment rather than new cars. Other customers abandoned rail systems altogether in favor of busses and trolley-coaches, but the Cincinnati Car Corporation was not able to compete in this market.

The corporation's assets were liquidated in 1938.

1930 directory lists Warhus in Albany as pres. General Car & Coach Corp., 100 State St., Rm.1031

General Car & Coach (1930-1935) was a short-lived manufacturer of electric street cars, trolley buses and motor coaches whose manufacturing facility was located in Glens Falls, N.Y.

"The General Car & Coach Co., Glens Falls, N.Y., has leased the plant there of the former Arrow Grip Manufacturing Co. Oliver F. Warhus is president and general manager."

Headquartered in Albany, the firm had hoped to lease a car barn and freight shed (old Eastern Utilities Corp.) in Rensselaer, but a more suitable property was located in Glens Falls, a small city located 20 miles to the north. Founded in 1917, Arrow Grip was a well-known manufacturer of portable automobile jacks and non-skid tire chains whose initial plant was located at 112-132 Cooper St., Glens Falls, N.Y. A 1919 recapitalization provided funds for the construction of a new 2-story brick factory on Dix Ave. and in 1926 the firm was reorganized as the Argrip Chain Co.

September 1930 issue of ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL:

“Production to Start by General Car & Coach Company

“O. F. Warhus, president of the General Car & Coach Corporation, has announced that production of the company's standardized street car and trolley bus will start on a schedule of 100 cars a year at the factory established in Rensselaer, a suburb of Albany, the plant representing an investment of $175,000. It is intended to start manufacture within a few weeks, and within three months it is expected that 150 men will be at work. This number will be increased to 200 when production begins to hit the stride now planned.

“The type of car proposed for manufacture will be similar to Car No. 301 of the United Traction Company, Albany, to be built under patents held by Mr. Warhus. The vehicle will weigh 12 tons.

“The site acquired by the new company for its plant was formerly owned by the Eastern New York Utility Company. It includes a carhouse, freight shed, power plant, machine shop, garage and offices and contains approximately 45,000 sq.ft. of floor space. The property covers 5 acres in the heart of lower Rensselaer.

“Mr. Warhus is a native of Davenport, Iowa. He has had twenty years of experience in the field of electric transportation. He was vice-president and general manager of the Versare Corporation and later vice-president and director of the Cincinnati Car Company, where he was in charge of engineering and sales.

“T. M. van der Stempel, formerly of the staff of Electric Railway Journal, and a graduate mechanical-electrical engineer, will be in charge of sales. He has had experience both here and abroad in electric railway and highway transportation engineering problems.”

Syracuse Herald August 28, 1930:

“Rensselaer Car Plant to Aid Syracuse; Part of Materials for Corporation to Be Obtained Here; To Build 100 a Year; Plans Wait Only for Consent of Public Service Commission.

“One or more Syracuse Industries will benefit materially from the establishment of a new trolley car manufacturing plant at Rensselaer by the recently formed General Car and Coach Corporation, of which O. F. Warhus, of Albany, is president.

“Various materials to be used in the manufacture of the cars are to be obtained from Syracuse, Detroit, Philadelphia, Buffalo, Chicago and Albany, it was announced in Albany. It was not learned just what materials the new company expects to secure In Syracuse, owing to the absence from Albany today of the president of the concern.

“Mr. Warhus has completed arrangements, it was said, for the production of a standardized type of street car. The cars are to be turned out at the rate of 100 a year and within three months the plant will be employing 150 workers.

“All that remained today for the completion of the plans, it was announced, is the comment of the Public Service Commission to an application by the New York Power & Light Corporation for the transfer of its Rensselaer properties to a holding company, with the object of selling or leasing the properties.

“If the Public Service Commission acts favorably on the application, Mr. Warhus, it was said, will lease the car barn and freight shed of the old Eastern Utilities Corporation for one year, with the option of purchase.

“According to a report of the industrial division of the Niagara Hudson Power Corporation, which made an investigation, there will be a market for trolley cars for many years to come. The report was written by Joseph K. Moore, of the bureau, and had special reference to the General Car and Coach Corporation.

“‘Statistics indicate’, the report state, ‘that electric street cars and electric coaches are and will remain the most necessary vehicles in community transportation.”

1933 (+1934) directory lists him in Albany; Associate Director, 42 N. Pearl St. 4th flr. 1937 directory lists him in Washington, DC, mechanical engineer, WPA.

“November 20, 1938 New York Times:

“FREDERIC PRUYN, EX-BANKER, DIES; Served as a Director of the National Commercial Bank and Trust in Albany STRICKEN WHILE HUNTING Formerly Was Treasurer of Federal Signal Company--Headed Versare Co.

“Frederic Pruyn, retired Albany banker and business man, died today of pneumonia at a hunting lodge at Newcomb in the Adirondacks, friends in Albany were advised tonight.

“Mr. Pruyn was the son of Mrs. Anna Williams Pruyn and the late Robert C. Pruyn. He was stricken while hunting near Newcomb several days ago. Pruyn was a graduate of the Albany Academy, St. Paul’s School and Harvard.

“He was a director of the National Commercial Bank and Trust Company of which his father was president. He also served as treasurer of the Federal Signal Company, now the General Railway Signal Company, director of the Consolidated Car Heating Company and as president of the now defunct Versare Corporation.

“Survivors include his mother, two brothers, Edward Lansing and Robert D. Pruyn; a sister, Mrs. David M. Goodrich; three sons, Frederic Pruyn Jr., F. Morgan Pruyn, and Milton L. Pruyn, and a daughter, Beatrice Pruyn.

“His 1907 marriage to Beatrice Morgan was dissolved in 1926 by a divorce.”

Not surprisingly the eight-wheeled bus concept reappeared after the Second World War, but this time it involved two rigid 4-wheeled sections linked by a central pivoting joint. The driver steered the articulated vehicle from the front using a complex hydraulic system that connected the front-most axle with the rearmost axle.The system was tested in Germany during the 1950s and found to be too problematic for normal use and was abandoned. A similar 3-axle system was developed in the United States by Kaiser in 1946, but series production did not result.

Another variation is the quad-axle coach which survives today in Europe and Australia. This system mimics the Goodyear system of 1922 albeit with two steerable front axles in place of the steerable 4-wheel front trucks used by Versare and Goodyear. All were fitted with a standard double rear axle of the type commonly found on commercial vehicles.

A small number of twin steer, 3-axle coaches were used in Great Britain and northern Europe in the 1950s and 1960s which featured two steerable axles at the front and a single axle at the rear.

The most common multiple axle coach used today is the standard three axle coach, which is steered conventionally at the front axle. One variation is the articulated or ‘bendy’ bus, which is a standard wheelbase 2-axle, bus with front axle steering to which a rear trailing unit is permanently affixed via a pivoting joint.

©2013 Mark Theobald for Coachbuilt.com


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References

Keith Marvin – The Versare , The Automobilist (AUHV). July, 1983 issue

Jim Toman & Blaine S. Hays – Cleveland's Transit Vehicles: Equipment and Technology, pub. 1996

Hilton, George W., and John F. Due. The Electric Interurban Railways in America. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1960.

Jacques Pharand – A la belle epoque des tramways: Un voyage nostalgique dans le passé (In the Golden Age of Tramways: A Nostalgic Trip into the Past), pub. 1997

Wagner, Richard, and Birdella Wagner. Curved-Side Cars Built by Cincinnati Car Co. Cincinnati: Wagner Car Company, 1965 120pp.

Van Wilkins - Cincinnati Car Corp. Trolley-Coach and Bus Production, Motor Coach Age (March-April 1991): pp 26-29.

Van Wilkins - Utah Light & Traction Co. Pioneer Trolley Coaches, Bus World, Vol. 5, No. 2, February 1983 issue

Van C. Wilkins - Utah Light & Traction Co., Motor Coach Age, Vol. 29, No. 1, January 1987 issue

Charles D. Wrege, Regina A. Greenwood & Carl Bajema - Louis J. DeLmarter: Marketing Changed the Transit Industry: 1920-1935 ‘The Future of Marketing’s Past Charm’, pub. 2005

Regina A. Greenwood, Charles D. Wrege, Peter J. Gordon & John Joos - Louis J. DeLamarter: Can He Save A Dying Industry?, Journal of Management History, Vol. 15 No. 2, pub. 2009

Versare Corporation--promotional brochure and "Electric Coaches: a Disquisition and an Operation Report", n.d.

Ed Strauss & Karen Strauss - The Bus World Encyclopedia of Buses

G.N. Georgano & G. Marshall Naul - The Complete Encyclopedia of Commercial Vehicles

Albert Mroz - Illustrated Encyclopedia of American Trucks & Commercial Vehicles

Donald F. Wood - American Buses

Denis Miller - The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Trucks and Buses

Susan Meikle Mandell - A Historical Survey of Transit Buses in the United States

David Jacobs - American Buses, Greyhound, Trailways and Urban Transportation

William A. Luke & Linda L. Metler - Highway Buses of the 20th Century: A Photo Gallery 

William A. Luke & Brian Grams - Buses of Motorcoach Industries 1932-2000 Photo Archive

William A. Luke - Greyhound Buses 1914-2000 Photo Archive

William A. Luke - Prevost Buses 1924-2002 Photo Archive

William A. Luke - Flxible Intercity Buses 1924-1970 Photo Archive

William A. Luke - Buses of ACF Photo Archive (including ACF-Brill & CCF-Brill)

William A. Luke - Trailways Buses 1936-2001 Photo Archive

William A. Luke - Fageol & Twin Coach Buses 1922-1956 Photo Archive

William A. Luke - Yellow Coach Buses 1923 Through 1943: Photo Archive

William A. Luke - Trolley Buses: 1913 Through 2001 Photo Archive

Harvey Eckart - Mack Buses: 1900 Through 1960 Photo Archive

Brian Grams & Andrew Gold - GM Intercity Coaches 1944-1980 Photo Archive

Robert R. Ebert  - Flxible: A History of the Bus and the Company

John McKane - Flxible Transit Buses: 1953 Through 1995 Photo Archive

Bill Vossler - Cars, Trucks and Buses Made by Tractor Companies

Lyndon W Rowe - Municipal buses of the 1960s

Edward S. Kaminsky - American Car & Foundry Company 1899-1999

   
 
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