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Versare Corporation
Versare Corp., 1925-1928; Albany, New York; Cincinnati Car Corp., 1928-1931; Albany, New York & Cincinnati, Ohio
Associated Builders
General Car & Coach Co., Albany, NY

During the mid-1920s a handful of American firms became involved in the manufacture of heavy-duty 3-axle motorbuses for city service. The principle suppliers were Safeway Six-Wheel; Fageol (Twin Coach); Yellow Truck & Coach; and American Car & Foundry.

A young machinist-engineer named Oliver F. Warhus proposed to enter the fray with a different take on the subject. He proposed to adapt the bogie wheeled drivetrain of an eight-wheeled, two-truck interurban street rail car to a street-going motor bus. Each truck (or bogie) would be powered by its own electric motor, with the current supplied by a generator mated to a small gasoline engine. The Fifth Ave. Coach Co. had been using gas-electric drivetrains for close to a decade so the only stumbling block being how to re-engineer the bogie so it could steer - a necessity on any self-directed road going vehicle.

He began work on the project in 1924, and within the year had a prototype on the streets of Albany, New York. Warhus chose the latin verb ‘versāre’ for the name of the company, which is the present active infinitive of ‘versō’ (‘turn, twist’). In Italian versāre means: to cross, go across, or walk across.

Frederic(k) S. Pruyn, an Albany, New York banker and executive of the Albany-based Consolidated Car Heating Co. and Federal Signal Co., became interested in the project and provided funding. Versare officers included Frederic S. Pruyn, president; Oliver F. Warhus, vice president, and Randall MacDonald, treasurer.

1904 Harvard graduate, Frederic Stanley Pruyn was born on July 5, 1881 to Robert C. and Anna Williams Pruyn, his father being president of the Embossing Co. and National Commercial Bank and Trust Co. (of Albany). Frederick’s grandfather was Robert H. Pruyn, a well-known Albany attorney, businessman and associate of US Secretary of State William H. Seward, who appointed Pruyn U.S. ambassador to Japan in 1861. On February 5, 1907 Frederic married Beatrice Morgan, the daughter of Manhattan business man William Fellowes Morgan.

Both Pruyn and Randall MacDonald, Versare Corp’s treasurer were directors in the National Commercial Bank and Trust Co.

Oliver F. Warhus was born on November 30, 1886 in Davenport, Scott County, Iowa to Michael W. (b.1852 in Buffalo, NY- d. 1893) and Helen M. Warhus. His father was a Buffalo machinist following his untimely passing in 1893, the Warhus family moved to Pennsylvania. The 1900 US Census lists him in Alleghany City, Alleghany County, Pennsylvania. The household includes his mother (48yo - widow), Helen M; sisters Lillian E.( b. 1873); May M.(b.1875); Robert M. (b.1877 - machinist); and Oliver F. (12yo – at school) Warhus. Alleghany City was annexed by the City of Pittsburgh in 1907 and is now known as the Pittsburgh’s North Side.

Like his father and older brother Robert, Oliver embarked upon a career as a machinist. The brothers were sidetracked during the early part of the 20th century when they purchased an Alleghany City (Pittsburgh) undertaking business. That city’s 1906 business directory lists them as: Warhus Bros. Undertakers, 123 Ohio (Oliver F. and Robert M. Warhus). Also included was his sister Lillian’s millinery house, L. Warhus & Co., 423 Penn Ave.

On November 1, 1910 he married Mary Millicent Frank (b. August 18, 1879 in La Crosse, Wisconsin) in Chicago, Cook County, Illinois, and consequently returned to his chosen trade, relocating to Jackson, Michigan, where he accepted a position as gen. supt. of the Fox Machine Co. Founded by William R. Fox, the firm manufactured drill presses and milling machines for the automobile industry. He later took a position at the American Cement Machine Co. in Keokuk, Lee County, Iowa, and his first patent application, filed on April 6, 1921 (Universal Joint – US Pat. No. 1491763, filed Apr. 6, 1921 - issued Apr. 22, 1924) states he was a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania at the time of filing.

Warhus was a contributor to the machinist trade magazines, and two of his articles were published in American Machinist (July 3, 1919 – ‘Burnishing Tool for Ball Races’; July 17, 1919 – ‘Special Taper Attachment for Engine Lathe’).

How Warhus ended up in Albany is unknown, but it’s more than likely he was hired by one of the firms that Frederic S. Pruyn was connected with, Consolidated Car Heating Co. being the most likely.

The Versare Corp. was organized by Pruyn and his associates in order to submit bids and designs for a trackless trolley project for the Capital District Transportation Co., the motor coach subsidiary of the United Traction Co. of Albany and an office was established at 91 State St. (Rm. 301), an office building located in downtown Albany’s financial district.

United Traction was created in 1899 through the merger of several local trolley lines; Albany Railway Co., the Troy City Railway (aka City of Troy Railway); and the Watervliet Turnpike and Railway Co. UTC’s main supplier of rolling stock was the J.M. Jones’ Sons Co. of Green Island, New York, but the decades-old firm had gone out of business during the First World War so the traction company was forced to look elsewhere for new rolling stock.

A number of proposed suburban Albany routes were in the works at that time, the first in Cohoes, the second in Rensselaer. The latter was mentioned in a 1923 issue of Bus Transportation:

“Buses for Albany Suburb

“The United Traction Company of Albany, N. Y., proposes to substitute bus for trolley service on its Broadway - Akin Avenue line in Rensselaer, a suburb of the capital city. Applications will be made shortly by the recently incorporated Capital District Transportation Company, Inc., a subsidiary of the United Traction Company, for the necessary equipment.”

Capital District Transportation Co. was consequently granted a ten year permit for the Cohoes bus service at a meeting of its Common Council. A surviving Versare Corp. blueprint dated April 30, 1924 shows their proposal, a novel streetcar-style trolley bus that incorporates Warhus’ 8-wheeled, double truck system.

Apparently Versare’s design/bid was unsuccessful, as the March 1925 issue of Engineering and Contracting reported the contract had been awarded to The Brockway Motor Truck Co. of Cortland, New York:

“The United Traction Co. of Albany, N. Y., commenced operation on Nov. 3, 1924, in Cohoes, N. Y., through its subsidiary the Capital District Transportation Co. The route covered is 2 1/2 miles long on which four Brockway ‘Street Car Type’ trolley buses are operated at a 7-cent fare.”

The conventional two-axle Brockway bus chassis incorporated bodies built by G.C. Kuhlman Car Co. of Cleveland, Ohio. Similar vehicles had been sold the previous year to New York State Railways Inc. for use in Rochester and Utica, New York.

From 1924-1926 the corporate offices of the Versare Corporation were 103 Washington Ave., Room 404, Albany. Officers consisted of Frederic S. Pruyn, president; Oliver F. Warhus, vice president, and Randall MacDonald, treasurer. The firm’s manufacturing operations was situated in facilities located at 1057 Broadway in Albany's north end (now a parking lot in the southwest corner of National Grid’s Broadway storage facility).

As considerable time and money and been spent on designing the complex dual truck system, construction of a prototype exploiting the system went forward. The passenger compartment and greenhouse of the vehicle depicted in the 1924 blueprint was representative in size and scale to a typical medium-sized streetcar or tram found dating to the turn of the century. However the first Versare prototype was anything but typical.

Although built upon the principle of a double­-truck streetcar, it had a number of major differences, most obvious being the eight rubber-tread Budd wheels that replaced the all-steel units found on a tram or streetcar. While the passenger compartment of the coach was of conventional appearance, the front of the coach was equipped with a massive protuberance which enclosed the Buda gasoline engine and Westinghouse generator that supplied power to the truck-mounted electric motors that directed power to the wheels. The two trucks differed from standard railway units in that one pair of wheels one each could be steered at a 45 degree angle –allowing the Versare to traverse city streets without the use of tracks.

The front-mounted power plant could be removed as a unit and replaced with a new one in less than an hour, as were the 2 sets of trucks that held the electric motors. Although conventional in appearance the aluminum-sheathed monocoque coachwork was unique for the period, consisting of a series of welded-together aluminum box sections to which new section could be added if additional capacity was desired.

Its immense size, novel drivetrain and awkward silhouette made an instant impression on anyone who experienced it. Most new vehicle introductions announced in the pages of the motor coach and railway trades included a representative picture accompanied by a few paragraphs of descriptive text provided by the manufacturer.

The introduction of the prototype Versare created actual excitement in the trades, most excited was the British magazine, The Commercial Motor, who covered it in its June 2, 1925 issue (one full month before it appeared in the US trades):

“An Experimental Eight-Wheeled Bus.

“The Petrol-electric Principle Applied to an American Multi-wheeler.

“Most of the developments in connection with multi-wheeled vehicles of the rigid type have so far related to six-wheelers, but certain experimental work continues to be carried on, notably in America, with machines having a still greater number of wheels. The latest has just been brought to our notice by Automotive Industries, and it consists of an eight-wheeled chassis which has been designed and constructed by the Versare Corporation of Albany, New York. This model, as an accompanying illustration shows, has been built ostensibly for bus work, and it is in this sphere of operation that we are likely to witness the greatest use of such vehicles, for as the load factor increases the existing type of four-wheeler will become Jess able to meet the demands made upon it.

“In considering this point, one must not stress the question of mechanical adaptation and overlook the importance of the subject of highway conservation, for it is largely in the latter connection that the multi-wheeler has gained so many adherents. It is generally recognized that the axiom "spread the load and save the road" is not merely a happy-sounding phrase but a sound argument supported by the results and data obtained from searching practical tests.

“The Versare eight-wheeler is of more than passing interest because it is, we believe, the first occasion on which the petrol-electric system has been applied to a chassis of this description. It incorporates several outstanding features in design but, being merely an experimental type, embodies, in the main, components of standard build. The chassis frame is mounted on two four-wheeled trucks, each of which is provided with a fifth wheel enabling them to be moved through an angle of 45 degrees from the straight. This arrangement is said to prevent sideway slip of the tires on the road, apart from rendering it possible to turn the vehicle in a comparatively small circle.

“Our American contemporary draws attention to the fact that the two front wheels of the rear truck are provided with an automatic device that permits of knuckle steering. Crosslinks to these 'wheels are attached to a small wheel disposed slightly ahead of the axle at its center, for the control of which a telescoping rod attached to a point on the frame about 7 ft. in front of the axle is provided. This small steering wheel is connected to the rod through the medium of a pin. In operation, the rod turns with the frame, revolving about the center of the axle and turns the small wheel to which the steering rods are attached. This automatic control so functions as to cause the wheels of the rear truck to follow almost in the track of those at the front.

“The steering of the front wheels of the forward truck is accomplished in much the ordinary way. The steering column is connected through gears and levers to a small wheel which is linked to the steering knuckles at the end of the axle. The use of this small wheel ensures that the center planes of the wheels will always be tangential to the turning circle. The use of the petrol-electric system of transmission for a heavy vehicle of this type (the experimental chassis weighs 22,850 lb.) possesses obvious advantages: Those who have occasion to use the Tilling buses running in London will know that no gear changing is necessary with such vehicles and that smooth acceleration is a noticeable feature of starting and, consequently, the stresses to which the chassis is subjected, as a whole, are Much reduced. The larger the vehicle the greater the importance of this consideration, and therein. is to be found the reason for the use of a petrol-electric drive on the Versare chassis. An engine-driven generator, two motors (one on each bogie) and a controller are provided.

“For the initial experiments a 60 h.p. (Buda) engine was employed, but this was not deemed sufficiently powerful, and a 100 h.p. Waukesha unit, with a bore of 4 7/8 ins., and a stroke of 5 1/4 ins., was substituted. The electrical equipment consists of standard-type Westinghouse motors and generator, the former being suspended between the axles by straps from the truck frame and provided with splined shafts for connection to a standard Eaton axle and differential.

“The generator is also of a standard type and provided with a special field winding to permit of a small amount of separate excitation. Supplementary excitation is said to give very stable operation by providing a flexible reduction between the engine and the wheels.

“The master controller permits the motors to be connected in series and in parallel for forward running, and in parallel only for reverse operation.

“The weight of the experimental chassis is somewhat high, due to the use of heavy frame members, but in a new model which is being constructed this will be reduced about 20 per cent, to approximately 16,000 lb., the chassis carrying a saloon-type body to seat 44 passengers. The tests with the initial eight-wheeler chassis are said to have been so satisfactory that no radical deviations will be made in the design of the second vehicle.”

One month later the Electric Railway Journal described the Versare as ‘unprecedented’ in its July 4, 1925 issue:

“A Radical Departure in Bus Design

“New Electric Drive Vehicle with Provision for 44 Seated Passengers is Mounted on Two Swiveling Four-Wheeled Trucks – Steering Arrangements Permit Bus to Turn on a Radius Little Greater than Its Own Length – Novel Body Construction with Power Operated Doors Facilitates Passenger Movement.

“Precedent has been laid aside in a new type of bus recently demonstrated at Albany, N.Y., before a group of electric railway and municipal officials and other guests. The new vehicle differs radically in having two independent swiveling trucks, and a structural steel framing without a chassis of the ordinary automotive type. Electric drive is another important feature. The development is the result of several years of intensive experimentation by the Versare Corporation of Albany, N.Y. The company is now proceeding with manufacturing plans, according to its president, Frederic Pruyn.

“Since each of the four-wheeled bogie trucks is a self-contained unit, the body which holds the two together can be varied in length and therefore in seating capacity. The first bus of this type to be built in complete form, and which was exhibited at Albany, can seat 44 passengers. Of these 32 are provided for on standard cross seats, and the rest on a single U-shaped seat placed along the sides and across the rear end. In addition allowing 3 ½ sq. ft. per passenger there is a nominal capacity for 52 standees. For handling freight a vehicle is being developed such that a capacity of 15 tons can be secured without exceeding the legal load limit allowed on 8-in. solid tires.

“Electric drive combined with a steering system that permits each wheel to run on a true circle of unusually small diameter has made practical the development of an eight-wheeled vehicle. It follows railway practice in the unit construction of the bogie trucks with the body serving as the structural connection. A 32 volt battery and lighting generator furnish electric power for starting the engine and for the regular lighting system. The electrical brake is another radical departure from automotive practice. It is foot-operated by the standard service pedal, so that the electric motors do the bulk of the stopping work, although there are also air and manual systems to fall back on in the event of an emergency.

“Each of the bogie trucks is a small chassis in itself. The wheelbase is 54 in. the one at the rear, which is shown in one of the illustrations, has a Sheldon from axle with a modified form of Ackermann steering. Slung by trunnions on a sub-frame is an electric motor, which is connected through a Spicer universal joint to the Eaton double-reduction rear axle. The springs, which are Sheldon 3 x 44 in., are underslung on the rear axle but mounted on top of the front axle. Instead of having each spring attached separately to the chassis, a design has been worked out that places the two on each side in series, so practically a double-length spring takes up bumps or other road inequalities. To permit the two springs to work practically as one, they are connected through links to an equalizing quadrant, which itself turns on an SKF Bearing.

“The front truck is much the same as the rear as regards axles, springs, motor installations, but is modified to allow the engine and generator to be mounted above it. Maintenance economy has been sought here, and it is said that both front and rear tracks as well as the complete power unit can be removed and replaced with another set in less than three-quarters of an hour. To do this the body need not be disturbed at all. In this respect it follows standard street railway practice.

“Arrangements For Steering

“Interest centers in the method by which this vehicle with a total length of 38 ft. can be turned in a short radius so that it can be steered through traffic in congested city streets. The steering circle of the outside wheels has been held down to a diameter of 43 ft., while the working circle required for total body clearance is only 47 ½ ft. diameter. This is accomplished by connecting each truck to the body through a king-pin so that it is free to steer as an independent vehicle. When the driver turns the steering wheel, the notion is transmitted through a worm and gear reduction, and through a patented linkage to a three-armed lever ion the front axle. Two of these arms are connected to the steering knuckle levers, through rods that result in a truce Ackerman action, instead of the modified action effected with the ordinary single cross-rod. That is, the wheels always roll tangent to their own circle of turning.

“Any movement of the front wheels of each truck, up to a maximum angularity of 33 deg., determines the movement of the rear wheels, but the latter take the same circle as the front wheels, so all of the eight travel on true circles. In the case of the rear truck, the front wheels are turned by a linkage connected to the body, which not only does the work of the driver in setting the front wheels, but also moves them just the right amount to synchronize the two trucks. Stops are arranged so that the trucks can turn only 45 deg. from the body centerline.

“Electric Drive Is Controlled By The Engine Throttle

“The rear wheels of each truck are driven by a Westinghouse motor. Power is generated by a gas engine-generator set consisting of a Waukesha six-cylinder engine, giving 110 h.p. at 1,700 r.p.m., direct-connected to a 40 k.w. Westinghouse generator with a special shunt-wound field. Generator and motors are of the heavy-duty traction type, rated at 175 volts, and the three weigh about 2,200 lbs.

“Fuel is fed to the engine by a dual installation of the Imco ‘Autopulse’ magnetic pump, from a 40-gal. tank on the left side under the body. A Zenith SV-7 carburetor, Fedders honeycomb radiator and Crane-Simplex muffler are used.Ignition is by the Apollo magneto. Electrical accessories include Exide 15-cell battery of 155 amp.-hr. rating, and Leece-Neville starter, and 600-watt generator, both of the 32-volt type.

“Control ordinarily is by the engine throttle, which gives speeds varying from a crawl to the 30 m.p.h. reached at 1,700 r.p.m. of the engine. The two motors are then connected in parallel. A series position is also provided, to give sufficient power on the heavier grades. During normal operation the generator voltage falls off above a certain speed, the drooping characteristic being great enough to prevent overloading of the engine. As a further means of insuring stable operation, part of the shunt field of the generator is separately excited, from the battery of the starting and lighting system. The drive, therefore, has two controllers, one with four positions to give forward and reverse motor connections, and the other with four points to vary resistance in the battery-excited field circuit. The main controller is heated at the left of the driver’s seat, and the other is mounted on the steering column.

“For use in electric braking a third controller is connected with the driver’s brake pedal. As developed in the Versare installation, the first movement of the brake pedal cuts off the generator from the electrical system, and later positions graduate the resistance into the rotor circuits and connect the armature of one motor with the field of the other, and vice-versa. Three frames each with 25 grids in series are mounted under the body and thus furnish ample resistance for braking work.

“On a 10 per cent grade the speed can be reduced to about 3 m.p.h. by electric braking, it is estimated. It would be about 1 on the level. To bring the vehicle to a stop, Westinghouse air brakes are used, with a two cylinder compressor driven off the engine. The valve handle is placed under steering wheel. Two storage tanks, connected in series, are provided to eliminate moisture from the system. Chambers are mounted on all eight wheels, the pistons working internal brakes mounted inside drums on the Budd disk wheels.

“The rear wheels on each truck have side-by-side internal brakes, both controlled by the air system. One set is also hooked up with a manual system, to a lever at the left of the driver. An emergency brake is furnished by the reverse position of the motors. These are then joined in parallel and can be used in case the air fails.

“The body framing is designed to carry the passenger weight and at the same time has ample stiffness to transmit the load to the trucks through the king bolts. In this respect it follows street railway design very closely. Stiffness and strength are obtained by a floor built up of two sheets of steel, 0.025 in. thick, separated by V-shaped pieces of the same material, laid across the body for the full length. Window and door pillars are of wood, braced by longitudinal steel members at top, center and bottom. Along their lower ends they are also braced by individual angles carried under the floor. The roof is of the monitor type, of plywood supported on U-shaped carlines 6 ft. 4 in. in the clear above the floor.

“Additional diagonal braces, of steel angles, are placed at each door, and also on the left-hand side opposite the doors. The general construction is indicated in an accompanying illustration. In the view of the rear bogie the body supports are shown. These consist of heavy rollers, turning on Hyatt bearings, on which the steel floor rests, or slides, when driving around a curve. When it is necessary to back the vehicle a heavy pine can be dropped into the notches at the rear of the bogie to hold it in the out of line position.

“Inside lighting is furnished by 24 Adlake fixtures, of the open-shade type, with 15-watt bulbs. In the ventilating system air is exhausted through the monitor windows, fresh air entering through adjustable louvers on the sides just back of the dash. In the demonstration bus the doors are operated by hand, bit it is intended to install electric door engines to control each one independently. The bumpers are of USE make, with five assembled at the front on the engine sub-frame. The same numberare used at the rear, but with two on the body and the others on the bogie.”

Versare’s choice of a Westinghouse generator was not mere coincidence. George Westinghouse Jr. was one of Consolidated Car Heating Co.’s first presidents, as was Robert C. Pruyn, a fact that was not lost on his son Frederick, who was its current treasurer at that time.

Consolidated’s plant was located at 413 N. Pearl St. Albany, which was conveniently located just 1,000 feet away from the Versare plant at Broadway. In fact, Consolidated’s successor, Consolidated Metal Products, continues to do business from that address as CMP Industries.

Albany and Schenectady New York were at the center of railroad activity in the early part of the 20th century due to their close proximity to the Eastern US transportation hubs. Schenectady’s General Electric research center helped develop the electric locomotive and was responsible for the groundwork that made gas-electric buses and streetcars possible.

To allay the fears of locomotive men Versare announced that their new buses would not be sold to ‘competitors of the railways’ in the July 4, 1925 issue of Railway Age:

“A Heavy Highway Car for Railroad Use.

“The Versare Corporation, Albany, N.Y., has perfected a highway passenger automobile which moves on two four-wheel trucks and will seat 44 passengers with standing room for 52 more. Its drive is gas-electric. Both pairs of trucks are movable as are also, separately from the trucks, the front pair of wheels of each. The result is a highway vehicle of high capacity which, in spite of its size, can still negotiate narrow and crooked streets with ease and which, because its weight is evenly distributed over four axles, comes well under the maximum highway loading restrictions.

“The corporation does not propose top sell these vehicles to the competitors of railways. It expects to find a market rather with the steam railroads and the street railway which, it is believed, can use the vehicle to supplement existing services. A freight truck of the same general design is being built and will be ready for test in about a month. It will carry a paying load of 15 tons, and will likewise be sold only to railways.

The present coach has eight springs which absorb the road shocks and reduce the pounding effect on the road and shocks in the body and chassis, making for longer life of the mechanism and improving riding qualities. It has an overall length of 40 ft. and is mounted on 30-in. wheels that are provided with rubber cushion tires. The trucks have a wheel base of 54 in. The distance from center to center of trucks is 30 ft. The total weight of the vehicle is 16,000 lbs. The tread is 61 in. and the body width 8 ft., the latter being the maximum allowable by law. IT is possible to turn the vehicle around in a circle with a diameter only 5 feet great than its length.

“The trucks are of a swivel type. The drive controls the front wheels of the forward truck by means of a steering wheel in much the same manner as the ordinary automobile and the rear truck tracks with the forward truck automatically.

“Traction is secured by motors which obtain their power from a generator which is driven by a gasoline motor. The elaborate mechanism with many differentials and universal joints which would be necessary for mechanical transmission on such a large vehicle is thus avoided, as is all gear shifting. This is considered an important advantage, in view of the fact that heavy vehicles in frequent stop service requiring much shifting of gears are apt to be laid up frequently because of transmission troubles. The electric transmission also has the advantage of reducing vibration, which makes for lower maintenance costs and smooth acceleration which makes for more comfortable riding. The engine is also used more economically.

“This coach is equipped with a 100-h.p. engine recently developed by the Waukesha Engine Company. This engine is a model 6-A, with 4 7/8 in. bore and 5 ¼ in. stroke, constructed with the Ricardo head. This engine is connected to the generator by means of a flexible coupling and the two are mounted as a unit on channels lengthwise of the car as in ordinary automobile practice. The driver’s seat is to the left of the generator that is connected to the rear of the engine.

“The electrical equipment for the Versare coach was supplied by the Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company. The generator is capable of utilizing the full output of the engine and is able, without overheating, to supply full power to the two motors that are mounted on the bogies. The motors have a rating of 20 h.p. at 175 volts. There are two of these, one mounted on the rear axle of each truck. They are of vehicle type, rated at 20 h.p. and have a high continuous rating. They are partially enclosed to protect the commutator against dirt and water.

“The motor controller and a braking controller form the principle part of the control apparatus. The master controller has three operating positions, series and parallel forward and parallel reverse. The parallel operating position forward is the first position from the ‘off’ as it is used more frequently than the series. The master controller is mounted directly under the driver’s seat and a lever for positioning the controller extends up through seat to the left of the driver. A special notching device is provided on the lever that protects the control from rough handling by the driver.

“This type of control is simple in operation and easily mastered. The engine is first started, of course, as in ordinary practice. The driver then throws the motor control lever into one of the operating positions. He is then ready to go. The engine throttle is practically the only control regularly used, the variations in engine speed being sufficient to produce the desired voltages and hence coach operating speeds.

“The equipment is designed for a maximum speed of 30 miles per hour. The balancing speed on the level of the coach is approximately 25 miles per hour with a reasonable engine speed. No tests have as yet been made on this new coach to indicate its performance, but it is expected to be better than that of the initial experimental equipment. The experimental equipment was heavier and of slightly different construction. Tests on it indicated that scheduled speeds of 11 miles per hour could be made on mile runs with 8 stops per mile of ten seconds in length. Here the tests were conducted on a road with a rolling profile, having grades up to approximately 4 per cent. As far as possible the starts were always made up hill.

“This coach is provided with three independent sets of brakes. Standard automotive Westinghouse air brakes, of the internal expanding type, are provided on all eight wheels with the usual controlling air drums. In addition to the air brakes, the hand brake is incorporated on the truck for bringing the coach to a stop or for holding it for long periods. The hand brake lever is mounted on the left of the driver. In addition to these two brakes, the electrical brakes are incorporated in the electrical scheme of control.

“The air storage tanks, the electrical grid resistance and a 40-gal. gasoline tank are all mounted under the center of the coach. Airs is supplied to the tank by means of a compressor directly connected to the engine. These tanks clear the side of the coach and in no way interfere with clearances needed for ordinary operation.”

The Versare was not the first eight-wheeled road-going vehicle considered by a US manufacturer. In fact the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co. had proposed such a vehicle in mid-1920, the July 1920 issue of The American City reporting:

“Enter the Six-Wheel Motor Bus

“A pay-as-you-enter auto bus, patterned after the new type of street cars and capable of carrying loo people, is being designed by the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Akron, Ohio, as an experiment in broadening the field for the use of pneumatic truck tires, and will be operated in Akron. The new bus will have six wheels. It is the intention of the company later to equip the bus with eight wheels similar to the double trucks on street cars. Unfortunately photographs of the bus with its special passenger equipment are not available.

“The accompanying illustration, however, shows the arrangement of the six wheels, as the bus is now used with a commercial body.

“The increased service of busses of this type, permitting the greatest cushioning of the load, thereby lessening the impact on the road, can be well appreciated by students of highway traffic. States now considering the passage of laws limiting the total weight of load and vehicle may have to reconsider their legislation in the light of the lessened load per inch of tire with the six-wheel bus, which is now a reality, and the eight-wheel bus or truck, which is promised in the near future.”

A six-wheeled trolley coach that served as the test bed for the 1920 experiment was retrofitted with Goodyear’s eight-wheel system, hitting the road as promised midway through 1922, the June 8, 1922 issue of The Automobile (Automotive Industries) reporting:

“Goodyear Makes Bus With Eight Wheels: Is Development of Present Six Wheeled Vehicle—Same Chassis Used

“AKRON, June 5 — An eight wheel passenger bus—an entirely new departure in motor vehicle design—is being developed by the Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co. of Akron, which two years ago pioneered in the successful development and practical demonstration of the six wheel chassis for both truck and passenger buses.

“The first six wheel passenger bus perfected by Goodyear engineers is being remodeled and made into an eight-wheeled bus, with four wheels in the rear and four in front. It will carry a street car body of the Peter Witt type, with pay-enter folding doors and collapsible steps, and seats and standing room for 55 passengers.

“The new eight wheeler will have practically the same chassis and wheelbase as the six wheeled vehicle, with a wheelbase of 180 in. from the center between the front wheels to the center between the rear wheels.

“Goodyear engineers have perfected a system whereby the big bus can be steered by all four front wheels operated with a single steering wheel. The front and rear wheels of the front truck have been arranged with different radius lengths so as to permit proper tracking when the vehicle is turned and the wheels are at an angle to the chassis.

“Litchfield Worked Out Plan

“His conviction that the ultimate motor vehicle would be multiple wheeled, taking the same evolution as the freight car, led to P. W. Litchfield's working out plans for the first six wheeled motor vehicles ever put into practical use in America several years ago. Litchfield is vice-president and factory manager of the Goodyear company.

“Six wheeled trucks and buses now are being used regularly in Akron. They have proved to have easier riding qualities, a lower center of gravity and better traction, while tire equipment is less expensive than for a conventional four-wheeled truck with larger wheels. The new eight wheeler is expected to make its debut within a month or so.”

An article in the June 24, 1922 issue of Automobile Topics provides a few more details:


“Is Development of Six-Wheel Design; Has Air Brakes on All Eight Wheels — Four-Wheel Steer in Front-Tires Reduced to 34 x 7 All Around.

“An eight-wheel passenger bus has been completed by the Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., Akron. This is a development of the six-wheel five-ton truck, experimented with by the Goodyear company during the past two years. Compared with the earlier type, the eight-wheel bus is of prime interest because of three important developments. These include the perfection of an airbrake system, operating on all eight wheels; a new steering mechanism, operating on all four front wheels; and finally, a reduction in the size of pneumatic tires used. It is largely to obtain the maxi-mum saving in tire weight and tire costs that the Goodyear company has been making these experiments.

“Goodyear engineers have succeeded in applying to the new bus an air brake system similar to that used on street cars and railroad trains. While the use of air brakes on motor vehicles has been attempted in the past, the Company’s engineers claim that theirs is the first successful application.

“The air brake system, as adapted to this bus was developed by taking part of the compression from the top of the engine cylinders by means of special plugs and confining the pressure thus obtained in a small tank mounted on the chassis. The system, it is said, affords a 75-pound air pressure for this use. The brakes are operated by a small lever mounted on the dash in front of the driver.

“The second new development is the steering by all four front wheels with a single steering-wheel, In order to make possible this control, it was necessary to devise a hook-up which would permit the front and rear wheels of the forward truck to swing each at a different radius so that the wheels would track at an angle.

“In addition to those advantages obtained in the previous multi-wheel designs — namely, easier riding qualities, better traction and a greater operating radius — the company has with the eight-wheel design effected a further saving in tire weight and tire costs. The distribution of the weight of the vehicle and load over a greater number of tires is a big factor in reducing damage to roads, too.

“On a conventional four-wheel truck carrying a five-ton load, it would be necessary to use 48” x 12” giant pneumatics, the Company points out. On the first six-wheel trucks developed, the original tire equipment used consisted of 40” x 8” pneumatics. Now on the new eight-wheel bus, 34 x 7 tires are used all around.

“The eight-wheel bus has a large streetcar type body. It is a one-man-operated design, equipped with adjustable windows, electric lights and upholstered seats. The body seats 44 passengers and has standing room for nearly 20 more. The entrance door is alongside the driver's seat with a pay-as-you-enter arrangement. Two exit doors in the middle of the body are operated from the driver's seat.”

Other 8-wheelers were announced in the pages of Bus Transportation and Electric Railway Journal at about the same time. The American Motorway Equipment Co. of New York announced they were planning to manufacture the AMECO 8-Wheel Safety Bus, but the project didn't get beyond the planning stages although two brochures were issued. Another builder was the National Axle Corp., of San Jose, California whose 'Pacific 8-Wheeler' was advertised in the December 1922 issue of Bus Transportation.

Emory Winship's Eight-Wheel Motor Vehicle Corp., of San Francisco, Claifornia produced an eight-wheeled bus and truck that were pictured in the March 1, 1923 issue of Motor West. Designed by the talented engineer Rollie B. Fageol, the 2 prototypes were tested extensively, but I could locate no evidence they progressed beyond the prototype stage.

M.O. Reeves 1911 Octoauto is generally considered to be the first 8-wheeled automobile, but like the trucks and buses mentioned above, it never got beyond the prototype stage.

What sets Versare apart from the aforementioned 8-wheelers was the fact it did enter series production, albeit in very small numbers. The planned series manufacture of the Versare - which up until that time was a ‘prototype’ - was mentioned for the first time in the August 11, 1925 issue of the UK trade, The Commercial Motor:

“Developing an Eight-Wheeled Bus Chassis.

“The Latest Details of the Versare Petrol-electric Multi-wheeler Which Incorporates Several Noteworthy Features in its Design.

“In our issue dated June 2nd we published a short article dealing with an experimental eight-wheeled bus chassis built by the Versare Corporation, of Albany, New York, and now that the company have formulated plans for the manufacture of the new vehicle we feel justified in amplifying our previous description by referring to the latest features in its design, many of which are the outcome of experimental work extending over a period of years.

“It will be remembered that in the Versare multi-wheeler the petrol-electric system of drive is employed, and, in some respects, the general construction follows railway practice in that the vehicle has two separate four-wheeled bogies, with the body serving as the structural connection between them.

“As our American contemporary, ‘Bus Transportation’ (to which we must acknowledge our indebtedness for the details we now publish), observes, the bogies are in effect small chassis in themselves. That at the rear has a Sheldon axle in front with a modified form of Ackerman steering. An electric motor is slung by trunnions on a sub-frame, and is connected by a Spicer universal joint to the Eaton double-reduction rear axle.

“The springs for the rear axle are underslung, those at the front being mounted above the axle, but instead of their inner ends being attached separately to the frame channels they are arranged to operate on each side in series, so that a double4ength spring is virtually available for absorbing vibration and road shocks. To effect this end the springs are connected through the medium of links to an equalizing quadrant which turns on an SKF bearing.

“So far as the disposition of its main units are concerned the design of the front bogie is a duplicate of that at the rear, but in addition it has the engine and generator mounted above it. The type of Versare bus which we illustrate is designed to seat 44 passengers, whilst ample space is available to permit a further 52 persons to stand, It is obvious that to accommodate this number of passengers in a single saloon a 'body of considerable length must be employed, and for this reason the manufacturers have given much attention to the question of steering control, so that the vehicle can be operated in congested traffic areas with comparative ease and speed. When it is mentioned that the overall length of the bus is 48 ft. and the wheelbase (measured from center to center of bogies) 29 ft., it will be acknowledged that the problem is one which had to be satisfactorily solved to render the vehicle, as a type, a practicable proposition.

“The manner in which this difficulty has been met is one of the outstanding features of the design. In the first place each bogie is connected to the body through a king-pin, and is thus free to be steered independently. When the steering wheel is turned, the motion is transmitted through a worm-gear reduction and through a patented form of linkage to a three-armed lever on the front axle. Two of these arms are connected to the steering-knuckle levers through rods that result in a true Ackerman action. Any movement of the front wheels of each bogie (the limit is 33 degrees) determines the movement of the rear wheels, which follow the course of those ahead. In the case of the rear bogie, the front wheels are turned through the medium of a linkage connected to the body, and this enables the movement of one bogie in relation to the other to be synchronized. Suitable stops are fitted so that the movement of t b e bogies from the center line of the body is limited to 45 degrees. This articulated form of steering enables the bus to be turned in a circle of 43 ft. diameter, i.e., very little more than its own length.

“The Westinghouse motors which drive the rear wheels of each bogie derive their power from a six-cylinder Waukesha engine which develops 110 h.p. at 1,700 r.p.m., and is directly coupled to a 40 kw. Westinghouse generator with a special shunt-wound field.

“Control is ordinarily by the engine throttle up to the rated speed of the power unit, at which 30 m.p.h. can be reached, the two motors then being connected in parallel. A series position is also provided so that sufficient power is available when climbing steep gradients. During normal operation the generator voltage falls off above a certain speed, and this characteristic avoids overloading of the engine. The generator is provided with a special field winding to permit of a small amount of separate excitation from the battery of the starting and lighting system.

“The braking system is worthy of special mention. A controller is connected with the driver's brake pedal for use when braking is performed electric ally. As developed on the Versare chassis, the first movement of the brake pedal cuts off the generator from the electrical system, and later positions graduate the resistance into the rotor circuits and connect the armature of one motor with the field of the other, and vice versa. Three frames, each with 25 grids in series, are mounted under the body and furnish ample resistance for braking work.

“’Bus Transportation’ states that, on a 10 per cent, gradient, the speed of the vehicle can be reduced to about 3 m.p.h. by electric braking, and to bring it to a halt Westinghouse air brakes are used, a two-cylinder compressor driven by the engine being fitted. For this system chambers are mounted on all eight wheels, the pistons actuating internal brakes inside the drums. The rear wheels on each bogie are fitted with side-by-side internal brakes, both of which are connected to the air system.

“We have now dealt with the major features of importance in the design of the chassis and, before closing, we would refer to one or two points of interest in the body. Firstly, it is apparent that as the body takes the place of the ordinary frame members, and takes the weight of the passengers, it must be of very strong, construction, and this end is attained by building up the floor of two sheets of steel, 0.025 in. thick, these being separated by V-shaped sections laid across the body throughout its entire length. The pillars for the doors (there are two, as one of our illustrations shows) and the windows are of wood which is braced by longitudinal members of steel, additional strength being given by angle-iron members disposed diagonally.

“The body supports on the bogies consist of heavy rollers turning on Hyatt bearings on which the steel floor rests, or slides, when the vehicle is negotiating corners.

“Certain dimensions have already been given, others are as follow: Weight, complete, about 16,500 lbs.; wheelbase of each bogie, 4 ft. 6 ins.; track, 5 ft. 9 ins.; width over rubbing rails, 8 ft.; overall height, 8 ft. 8 in.; body interior height, 6 ft. 4 ins. When the bus is carrying a full load of seated passengers the weight is equally distributed over the two bogies.

“We shall watch with interest the progress of the Versare multi-wheeled bus, and will keep our readers duly advised of any developments which are made in its design and construction.”

The first Versare buses were offered in two forms, the first featuring a conventional streetcar body fitted with a railroad-style vestibule roof with clerestory windows, the second featuring a slightly sloped plain or flat roof typical of those found on most other motor coaches.

Despite the significant amount of publicity that surrounded the introduction of the 8-wheeled Versare gas-electric coaches, only four are known to have been delivered to transportation customers. The initial vestibule-windowed prototype/demonstrator originally tested on the streets of Albany during early 1925 was later acquired by the Capital District Transportation Co. and assigned to Albany's Western Avenue line. At least two 8-wheeled Versare gas-electric trucks are known to have been built, but their purchasers remain unknown, although it’s likely they remained in Albany for use by one of Pruyn’s businesses.

The three documented production 8-wheeled coaches were sold to just two firms, two to the Alton Transportation Co. of Alton, Illinois (1926) who utilized it on their 90-mile long Jacksonville, Illinois to East St. Louis, Illinois run, and the third (1927) to the Montreal Tram Co. of Montreal, Quebec, Canada who used it on the Atwater-LaSalle (Ave. Atwater - Blvd. LaSalle) line in the suburb of Verdun from 1927-1934.

Formed in 1927 the Alton Transportation Co. served as the motor coach subsidiary of the decades-old Chicago & Alton Railroad Co. Alton Transportation’s No. 400 and No. 401 weighed 24,540 lbs., and had a total length of 39 ft. 10 in. Fitted with a 52-gal fuel tank the gas-electric coaches featured a railroad roof with windows and a smoking compartment. Passenger doors were situated bilaterally at the front of the coach, and third at the center of the right side. Power was delivered via a Westinghouse generator that was driven off of a Waukesha 6-cylinder gasoline engine.

Both the parent and its subsidiary entered into bankruptcy proceedings during 1928, with the bus company’s assets being sold to the Jacksonville Bus Line in 1930. Just prior to the bankruptcy the firm’s two costly Versares were sold off to generate much needed cash.

No. 400 was retired from service in late 1927 and sold to the Cleveland Railway Co., of Cleveland, Ohio who renumbered it as No. 700, although it was more popularly known as ‘the Monster’. Cleveland Railway subsequently purchased No. 401 in 1928, renumbering it as No. 701. After a short time in service the operator judged the vehicles to be too wieldy to be of further use and both vehicles were scrapped shortly thereafter.

Montreal’s ‘Beast’, aka “Le monstre de la rue Atwater“ aka car #800, had a much longer useful service. It entered service on May 11, 1927 and exactly 7 years later (May 11, 1934) its monocoque aluminum coachwork suffered a catastrophic failure and the vehicle literally split in two, after which it was parted out and junked.

Although the Versare 8-wheeled coaches were well-received by the press, customers were few and far between. While they were busy getting the engineering of its significantly more conventional 6-wheeled successor in order, Versare Corp. sent out a press release for the 8-wheeler during the fall of 1926 in order to try and drum up some new business. The October 1926 issue of Motor Coach Transportation mentioned the firm’s Westinghouse electric motors in the headline:

“Two Westinghouse Motors in Versare Coach

“A novel form of road vehicle has recently been completed which is destined to have a promising future. This is a double-truck, eight wheel, passenger-carrying vehicle built by the Versare Corporation of Albany, New York. Manual steering control of the forward truck and the automatic steering of the rear truck render- the handling of this coach very easy. The use of eight wheels permits of greater capacity than has hitherto been obtainable with four wheel or six-wheel vehicles, and greatly improves the riding characteristics. A large demand for this type vehicle is expected in the field of freight haulage. Power for the coach is generated by a large 6 cylinder Waukesha engine direct-connected to a Westinghouse generator. Two Westinghouse vehicle type motors are used for propulsion, one motor being mounted on each truck.

“Control of power application to the motors is very simple. The generator is self-exited, a small field controller permitting the operator to carry the filed strength at all current loads. In normal operation it is only necessary to increase the engine speed in order to apply more power to the motors. The permissible variation in field excitation, however, allows the full engine output to be obtained under any condition of service and has proved its value in climbing steep grades Dynamic braking is also provided for safety in descending long grades or for use in case of failure of brakes.

“Info — Passenger Seats — 44. Passenger Standing — 52. Complete Weight — 16,500 Ibs., Truck Center Distance — 29 ft. Truck Wheel Base — 54 in Gauge, Front and Rear — 69 in. Turning Circle, Maximum — 47 ft. 6 in Maximum Speed — 30 mph Overall Length — 38 ft. Overall Width – 96 in. Overall Height – 8ft. 8 in.”

The October 1926 issue of Motor Coach Transportation contained another article on the Versare:

“Versare Gasoline-Electric Coach.

“The new gasoline-electric coach which has recently been put out by the Versare Corporation of Albany. New York, is, in reality, two independent short wheel base vehicles each of which has the extremely short turning radius of 9 ½ feet. These two short wheel base trucks are connected by king pins to a rigid body. The individual trucks, being free to articulate, allow the entire vehicle to turn in circle little more than its own length.

“The front wheels of the lead trucks are manually controlled by the driver. The articulating action of both trucks is the result of a full automatic control. No overhang and automatic semi- delayed steering of the rear truck eliminates side-swiping and the necessity for wide swings on corners. Due to its snake like action in threading through traffic the 38 foot Versare coach operates readily.

“By the use of eight spring suspension, each independent truck having four springs with two equalizers, exceptional riding qualities are obtained. The gasoline-electric drive insures smooth acceleration; prevents racing; eliminates gear shifting and makes spectacular driving impossible. Particular attention has been paid to safety, as well as dependability. None but the finest materials and parts are employed in the construction of the Versare, and three independent methods of braking are employed:

“Electric resistance braking for service use.
“Air brakes on 4, 6 or 8 wheels, as desired.
“Conventional mechanical hand brake.

“Great stress has been placed on accessibility and interchangeability. Both front and rear trucks as well as the complete power unit may be replaced with other units in less than three-quarters of an hour without disturbing the body or inside of the coach in any manner.

“The important item of lubrication has been simplified by the use of roller and ball bearings with ample reservoirs for lubricants.

“A minimum of unsprung weight and the equalized distribution of the load insures less tire expense than that entailed in a four wheel vehicle carrying two-thirds the load.

“Versare bodies (built to the specifications of the operator) are of a frameless truss type. This construction insures the maximum rigidity with minimum weight.”

In mid-October of 1926 a number of national papers ran an item that showed a picture of the Versare and a headshot of W.H. Sawyer, president of the NERA. The following caption appeared in the October 17, 1926 Ogden Standard (Utah):

“With buses like the 41-passenger, eight-wheeled Versare-Westinghouse gas-electric giant on the street; the best way for a small car owner to get to-work is to take a bus! This model was put in use on Cleveland streets, and is the first to be used in a large city. To the right is shown W.H. Sawyer of East St. Louis, the new president of the National Electric Railway Association of America.”

By 1926 it was obvious that the firm’s 8-wheeled coach was a commercial failure, or more poignantly ’the answer to a question that nobody asked’. The same mistake was not repeated on the firm’s next project, a gas-electric six-wheeled coach. Unlike the firm’s 8-wheeled coaches, the 6-wheeler’s gasoline engine and generator were located at the rear of the vehicle, with a 25 watt Westinghouse electric motor attached directly to each of the rear axles (50 watts total).

With the power plants located at the rear Warhus was able to locate the driver and passenger entrance ahead of the front axle, with the claim that it was the first ‘streetcar-type’ coach to be so-equipped. In fact the new Versare was available in two flavors, one for the rails and one for the highways. The AERA Convention issue of the September 17, 1927 issue of the Electric Railway Journal introduced the triple axle Versare via a triple page advertisement:

“An ENTIRELY NEW conception of both Highway and Rail vehicles; in Design; in Construction; in earning power; and distinctively in appearance

“For the first time in history:

“VERSARE Six-Wheel Rail Unit

“For two years Versare engineers have been working on this design. They were given a free hand. With the results of Versare experience in low-cost popular transportation as a background they strove for perfection in a light, practical, economical and thoroughly modern electric car.

“What are the results?

“A vehicle that is unique alike in design and performance.

“An electric car built entirely of duralumin and light alloy steel, — weighing complete and ready for the rails only 12,500 lbs.

“Greater comfort, smoother and more silent operation, than have ever been known in rail vehicles before. Plenty of room for 32 seated and 32 standing passengers.

“Automotive type axles and drive, with their attendant simplified maintenance and easy accessibility.

“A drive truck unit that can be removed entirely in half an hour. Standard Westinghouse motors and control.

“Furthermore the Versare Six-Wheel Rail Unit will be sold complete at an established price, in the same way as automotive vehicles. It offers without doubt the simplest and most satisfactory solution to modernization problems in the great majority of American cities today.

“Be sure to see the completed sample car which will be exhibited at the Convention on Track E.


“Transportation history and Highway Units

"The Versare Six-Wheel Highway Unit

“Versare Corporation, the pioneer manufacturer of large capacity, single-deck highway units, announces this new six-wheel unit as a distinct advance.

“With a capacity of 35 seated and 35 standing passengers, it is the lightest weight gas-electric coach of this size that has ever been built, weighing complete only 13,500 lbs.

“It embodies identically the same structural units and truck design which have proved their efficiency, economy and low depreciation through hundreds of thousands of miles of service on our eight-wheel vehicles.

“Note particularly that the power plant is mounted at the extreme rear end of the body. It can be quickly removed and replaced without disturbing the radiators or fan units, and without the use of an overhead crane.

“No oil or gas fumes can seep into the coach interior because all seams in the engine housing are sealed with asbestos or rubber.

“Gas-electric drive is through two standard Westinghouse traction type 33 hp. motors mounted on the rear four-wheel trucks, — generous power for a vehicle of this size, resulting in the speed and pick-up for which Versare Highway Units have become famous.

“Study the more detailed specifications given overleaf. Note the radical difference between ordinary coaches and this highway unit built specifically to meet electric railway operators' needs.

“Then be sure to see the complete sample unit on exhibition at the AERA Convention in Cleveland — Space 476.


“Weigh carefully these specific advantages and innovations:

“The Versare Six-Wheel Highway Unit

1. No chassis. Duralumin truss construction in accordance with railroad practice.
2. Body maintenance practically eliminated.
3. Unit power plant mounted at rear. Quickly removable without crane.
4. Radiator and fan units separate from power plant. Easily removed from side of body.
5. No engine heat, oil or gas fumes can enter body.
6. Body built of interchangeable units identical with those of the eight-wheel vehicle.
7. Versare Hercules-Westinghouse gas electric drive. Two 33 hp. standard traction type motors.
8. Turning radius of 56 feet.
9. Electric brake. Westinghouse air service brakes and mechanical emergency brake.
10. Versare Patented Equalizer at rear drive axles, — floating ease in riding.

“The VERSARE Six-Wheel Rail Unit

1. Built entirely of Duralumin and light alloy steels.
2. Four wheel, single motor auto-motive type drive bogey in rear. Two wheel automotive type single motor drive axle in front.
3. Patented Versare Equalizer, — floating ease in riding.
4. All body sections interchangeable with standard replacement units.
5. Drive truck and motors removable complete in half an hour.
6. High speed with safety.
7. Maximum passenger capacity with exceptional comfort. 32 seated, 32 standing.
8. Silent operation.
9. Standard Motors, control and safety air brake equipment. Internal band brakes.
10. Highest quality standard equipment throughout.”

The Versare Story is continued on page 2 - Click Here for page 2.

©2013 Mark Theobald for


 Continued p1 p2




<previous  more pics p1 p2 next>

Keith Marvin – The Versare , The Automobilist (AUHV). July, 1983 issue

Jim Toman & Blaine S. Hays – Cleveland's Transit Vehicles: Equipment and Technology, pub. 1996

Hilton, George W., and John F. Due. The Electric Interurban Railways in America. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1960.

Jacques Pharand – A la belle epoque des tramways: Un voyage nostalgique dans le passé (In the Golden Age of Tramways: A Nostalgic Trip into the Past), pub. 1997

Wagner, Richard, and Birdella Wagner. Curved-Side Cars Built by Cincinnati Car Co. Cincinnati: Wagner Car Company, 1965 120pp.

Van Wilkins - Cincinnati Car Corp. Trolley-Coach and Bus Production, Motor Coach Age (March-April 1991): pp 26-29.

Van Wilkins - Utah Light & Traction Co. Pioneer Trolley Coaches, Bus World, Vol. 5, No. 2, February 1983 issue

Van C. Wilkins - Utah Light & Traction Co., Motor Coach Age, Vol. 29, No. 1, January 1987 issue

Charles D. Wrege, Regina A. Greenwood & Carl Bajema - Louis J. DeLmarter: Marketing Changed the Transit Industry: 1920-1935 ‘The Future of Marketing’s Past Charm’, pub. 2005

Regina A. Greenwood, Charles D. Wrege, Peter J. Gordon & John Joos - Louis J. DeLamarter: Can He Save A Dying Industry?, Journal of Management History, Vol. 15 No. 2, pub. 2009

Versare Corporation--promotional brochure and "Electric Coaches: a Disquisition and an Operation Report", n.d.

Ed Strauss & Karen Strauss - The Bus World Encyclopedia of Buses

G.N. Georgano & G. Marshall Naul - The Complete Encyclopedia of Commercial Vehicles

Albert Mroz - Illustrated Encyclopedia of American Trucks & Commercial Vehicles

Donald F. Wood - American Buses

Denis Miller - The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Trucks and Buses

Susan Meikle Mandell - A Historical Survey of Transit Buses in the United States

David Jacobs - American Buses, Greyhound, Trailways and Urban Transportation

William A. Luke & Linda L. Metler - Highway Buses of the 20th Century: A Photo Gallery 

William A. Luke & Brian Grams - Buses of Motorcoach Industries 1932-2000 Photo Archive

William A. Luke - Greyhound Buses 1914-2000 Photo Archive

William A. Luke - Prevost Buses 1924-2002 Photo Archive

William A. Luke - Flxible Intercity Buses 1924-1970 Photo Archive

William A. Luke - Buses of ACF Photo Archive (including ACF-Brill & CCF-Brill)

William A. Luke - Trailways Buses 1936-2001 Photo Archive

William A. Luke - Fageol & Twin Coach Buses 1922-1956 Photo Archive

William A. Luke - Yellow Coach Buses 1923 Through 1943: Photo Archive

William A. Luke - Trolley Buses: 1913 Through 2001 Photo Archive

Harvey Eckart - Mack Buses: 1900 Through 1960 Photo Archive

Brian Grams & Andrew Gold - GM Intercity Coaches 1944-1980 Photo Archive

Robert R. Ebert  - Flxible: A History of the Bus and the Company

John McKane - Flxible Transit Buses: 1953 Through 1995 Photo Archive

Bill Vossler - Cars, Trucks and Buses Made by Tractor Companies

Lyndon W Rowe - Municipal buses of the 1960s

Edward S. Kaminsky - American Car & Foundry Company 1899-1999

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