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Willoughby Co.
E.A. Willoughby Carriage & Sleigh Works, 1893-1897; Rome, New York; Utica Carriage Co. 1893-1897; Willoughby’s Utica Carriage Co. 1897-1898; Willoughby-Owen Co., 1898-1903; Willoughby Company, 1903-1938; Utica, New York
Associated Builders
R.M. Bingham & Co. 1858-1893; Bingham Harness Co. 1893-1917; Rome, New York

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In an article he wrote for the Winter 1961 issue of The Classic Car, Willoughby’s designer, Martin Regitko, recalled:

“At this time Willoughby was building bodies for Locomobile, Studebaker, Cole, Marmon and others. There would perhaps be orders for 25-50 bodies for Locomobile, but the orders for the other makes would run into the hundreds.

“Willoughby built many single custom bodies; some of these orders came through dealers, but others were ordered directly by the customers. In Utica and its environs many of the wealthy people would buy the chassis and then order the bodies. Limousines, broughams, and panel broughams were favored, and of course, they all had open chauffeur compartments. The rear seats were sixteen inches high and head room was 39-41 inches. A few extra inches of en­trance room was always important.

“The interior trim of these beauties featured English broadcloth. The seats were tufted in a bis­cuit design and some even had pillows filled with down. Inside door panels had pockets with silk broad lace around the doors and approximately 2" from the openings. Arm-slings were mounted above the quarter windows, and some cars even had flower vases at­tached to the rear pillars. All windows had silk cur­tains. The custom automobile of that era was con­sidered a luxury. Therefore, it was used mostly for town driving, social calls, and theater visits. Anyone who either designed or built these bodies was doing more than just a job. The finished product of beauty gave one a feeling of exhilaration, well-being and satisfaction that very few occupations offer.

“By 1921, a new era in auto building had evolved. Times changed rapidly, and for the custom business, it was not for the better. The closed body became very popular. Buyers all wanted the closed bodies, but for a price which was too low for them to be built in hundred lots. Only the large companies could stand the competition. Some of the medium-priced cars dropped out. The Willoughby Company then started building more of the higher-priced bodies in smaller quantities. For many years the company built several models of Rolls Royce bodies which were delivered "in the white" (untrimmed and unpainted) to their place in Springfield, Massachusetts. Others built were Cadillac, and Wills St. Claire convertible town cars for Buenos Aires; Franklins, Duesenbergs, and of course Lincolns, which were the most satis­factory to build, and which became Willoughby's largest volume product.

“All Willoughby bodies had wood frames. These frames were hard ash reinforced with forged iron. The outside sheet metal was aluminum from the belt line down. The windshield pillar, door frames and rear quarters were aluminum casting. This type of con­struction was expensive, but it was the strongest and safest body made.”

“The New York Automobile Show was an event to which everyone in the automobile business looked forward eagerly. Most custom builders exhibited there. It was an excellent place to compare your product with your competitors. Not many custom body builders could stay in business just building single jobs. The smallest order taken at the show would be for 5-10 bodies. It was not unusual to have an order for 50-100 bodies. The preparation for the show began at the beginning of a new car year. It took many weeks to work out a design; how a particular style would fit into the family of bodies of the car company for which it was intended, etc. Usually, when there was hag­gling over the price, valuable time would be lost which later had to be made up while the body was being built. Naturally, the show job was made to obtain orders. For some of the small orders, nine weeks had to be sufficient. The larger ones took from 3-3 ½ months.”

Despite the fact that Willoughby had its own stand at the New York Automobile Salon, its growing expertise in the manufacture of closed bodies put it in the national spotlight and as a consequence, Francis D. Willoughby was elected president of the Automobile Body Builders Association on January 12, 1923, succeeding Holbrook's John Graham. The July 5, 1923 issue of Automotive Industries reported on the recent body builders’ convention:

“Membership Campaign Adds Fifty New Companies to Association List.

“In his opening address President F.D. Willoughby of the Willoughby Co., Utica, NY, expressed his thanks to the membership committee for its services to the organization in conducting an energetic membership campaign. Nearly 50 new members have been added to the list since Jan. 1. He pointed out that the association has the good-will of the other automotive organizations and is working in close cooperation with them. It has cause to be proud of its progress in establishing this cordial feeling. Body building has become a great and distinct industry, he said, and it has been demonstrated that it is possible to build perfect bodies at reasonable prices. He urged the need of support for the work of standardization of body parts which has been undertaken in conjunction with the SAE. Not only must the standards be agreed upon, but they must be adopted. In his opinion one reason for lack of progress in this direction has been that too much stress has been placed upon relatively trivial parts and not enough upon those which are more important.

“Bodies will have more attention in the future than any other part of the automobile, he declared. Chassis design has been perfected to such an extent that it can take care of itself. The A.B.B.A. will focus the attention of the industry.”

According to the February 22, 1924 Utica Observer-Dispatch, Francis D. Willoughby delivered the following address highlighting the importance of the shop foreman to the Mohawk Valley Engineers Club:

“Willoughby Gives Final Lecture in Engineers Course.

“Francis Willoughby, president of the Willoughby Company, makers of automobiles, declared that efficiency in manufacturing has decreased 20 percent since pre-war days.

"We were before the war 80 per cent efficient, now we are 40 per cent. Labor saving devices are a help, but what of the man power?

“Mental efficiency we need, same as our fathers had when they had no machines to compute for them. The foreman is the means of bringing about an industrial regeneration. He should have qualities to handle men, for it often happens a foreman is picked for his age in service, his superior knowledge of a certain business and not for his executive ability.

“These are some qualifications: Brains, good physique, not a Jack Dempsey but in good health, accuracy, initiative, co-operation, perseverance, concentration, thorough, observing, good memory, good judgment, mechanical intuit, tact, self-control and a sense of humor. He must also be sincere, loyal and fair.

“A foreman represents the firm and as such should be fair and loyal to all employees and to his employers.

“The lecture was the final talk in the series of the Foreman’s Training Lecture Course under auspices of the Mohawk Valley Engineers Club. The session took place at the Utica Gas & Electric Club auditorium.”

Although Willoughby coachwork had been exhibited at the New York Automobile Show for over two decades, their first official display at the prestigious New York Automobile Salon didn’t occur until the winter of 1924-1925, the November 8, 1924 New York Evening Post announcing the firm’s Hotel Commodore debut:

“Among the custom body exhibitors are four prominent American companies which are making their salon debuts - the Fisher Body Company and the C.R. Wilson Body Company of Detroit, the American Body Company of Buffalo, and the Willoughby Company of Utica. The others are Blue Ribbon, Brunn, Derham, Dietrich, Fleetwood, Holbrook, Judkins, Le Baron, Locke, Merrimac and Springfield."

Also making its Salon debut was the Wills Sainte Claire Automobile Co. who displayed an attractive Willoughby Town Car which was purchased off the floor by Mrs. Horace Dodge (and is currently in the Wills Sainte Claire Museum in Marysville, Michigan). Another Willoughby town car was built on a Moon chassis for the wife of the firm’s president, Stewart MacDonald, and a third town car was displayed on a Cadillac chassis.

By the mid-1920s, new metal stamping and welding processes developed by Budd’s Joseph Ledwinka caused a revolution in the manufacturing of closed automobile bodies. Stronger, cheaper all-steel bodies could be built in 10th the time that it took to make an aluminum skinned, Willoughby sedan, effectively pricing them out of the middle price marketplace. Only the well-heeled carriage trade could still afford their hand-built composite-bodied town cars and limousines. When Rolls-Royce of America purchased Brewster in 1925, Willoughby’s involvement with Rolls-Royce’s Custom Coach Work program ended and their future looked dim.

Luckily Edsel Ford came to their rescue with a commission to build a series of closed bodies for Lincoln’s factory custom body program starting with the 1926 model year. The repair and refinishing of existing bodies combined with the Lincoln custom catalog program kept Willoughby (and others) going through the depression. Considering that Central New York’s economy was especially hard hit in the thirties, it’s amazing that Willoughby lasted as long as they did.

In an article on fashion’s influence on automobile design, a 1925 issue of The Automobile states:

“It was Francis D. Willoughby, president, Willoughby Co., who brought out most strongly the idea that the flapper has been a strong influence on body design. Body design, he said, usually reflects the characteristics of the age.  Flapper psychology has had its effect on present day body design with the result that comfort has been sacrificed to style in some instances. It must be remembered, however, that chassis length is a very important factor in controlling comfort, and the trend today is in shorter wheelbases.”

Willoughby’s exhibit at the 1926 Salon was previewed in the November 11, 1925 issue of the Utica Daily Press:


“The Willoughby Company, builder of special automobile bodies, will have several exhibits at the automobile salon at Hotel Commodore, New York, November 15 to 22. The bodies will be mounted on Rolls- Royce, Lincoln and Wills Sainte Claire chasses.”

Specifically Willoughby showed 4 vehicles; a Lincoln Enclosed Drive Landaulet, a Springfield Rolls-Royce Coupe and a Wills Sainte Claire Sports Sedan and Town Car. Lincoln was pushing a ‘Colors of Nature’ theme for its Salon exhibits and the Landaulet was painted a deep blue-green, peculiar to the Swallow Tanager (bird) of Ecuador. The car was equipped with matching wire wheels with black moldings and a contrasting white body stripe.

Although attractive, Willoughby’s conservatively styled Enclosed Drive Landaulet was boxy in appearance and Edsel Ford encouraged Willoughby to come up with a more at­tractive design for the 1927 model year. The new design was a straight limousine in­corporating a 'Brewster Windshield', which was popular at the time. Brewster developed it as a way to reduce the glare from street lights and the head­lights of both oncoming and following cars. Several planes of glass were placed at different angles to the driver's line of sight with the hope that the light wouldn’t blind him. Brewster hadn’t patented the design and a number of manufacturers and body builders used it during the mid to late 1920s.

During 1926 Willoughby built a simple boat-tail speedster body for a 1926 Pontiac chassis whose 2-door sedan coachwork had been damaged in a fire. According to its current owner, Arnold Landvoigt of Savage, Maryland, the car competed in various hill-climbs at the time and is historically the very first Pontiac used for competition.

He states that the car, a two door sedan, serial # 3974, produced in the first months of 1926 was sold new by the McRorie-Sautter Motor Co., 122 Seneca St., Utica. Fred McRorie, a principal of the dealership, ended up with the car after the fire, and took it to Willoughby to have a speedster body fitted to it. Apparently cost was a factor as a simple composite boat-tail speedster body was fitted to the stock Pontiac cowl.

Driven by Warren 'Mandy' Mandeville, a McRorie-Sautter employee, the car competed in a hill climb in nearby Sherrill, New York on August 14, 1926, where it placed first in class. Painted white, the car advertised the McRorie-Sautter dealership and included Pontiac’s logo and slogan ‘Pontiac, Chief of the Sixes’ on the sides of the rear deck.

The ‘Hill Clumber’ as it was called competed in other races during the year and repeated its first success at the July 30, 1927 Sherrill Hill Climb. During the next few years the vehicle competed in various Oneida and Herkimer County hill climbs which included event at Red Hill (Washington Mills); Sauquoit; Kirkland Hill; Deerfield Hill; and Vickerman Hill (Herkimer).

The vehicle was retired from competition in 1932 and relegated to a corner of the dealership’s body shop where it remained until when it was resurrected and test-driven by the owner’s son, Fred McRorie who died soon afterwards. In 1962 ownership passed to Jerry Cooper, a childhood friend of Fred’s and in 1991 it was purchased by Robert Davison of Ellicott City, Maryland, who began a minimal restoration. In 1997 the car was purchased by Landvoigt who restored the car back to its original hill-climbing livery.

At 6:00 p.m., June 25, 1926, a freak tornado wrecked a substantial portion of Willoughby’s Dwyer Ave. factory. The Utica Daily Press included a photo of the damage to the western end of Willoughby’s 4-story brick factory and the following overview of the damage in its June 27, 1926 issue:

“Perhaps the greatest freak of the tornado was when the suction from the twister lifted the entire roof from the La Porte Hotel, 202 Turner Street, carried it high in the air and then sent it volpaning to earth where it crashed – into the chassis paint shed of the Willoughby Company, automobile body builders, nearly 500 feet away. The entire section of the roof, with the chimney intact, buried itself in the shed, shoving none too gently a Packard custom eight car, which was considerably damaged.

“The west end of the main structure of the Willoughby plant was rent asunder by lightning and the tornado, and heavy damage done to stock and supplies. On the easterly end, toward Turner Street, the brick wall had buckled nearly five feet, and it is difficult to say how much of the structure will have to be entirely rebuilt.

“Only one man, a night watchman, was at the Willoughby plant when the crash came and he was just entering the building after relieving the day engineer. Fortunately, the employees were not working at the time as they left their places at noon Saturday.

“It is the opinion of Francis D. Willoughby, president of the company, that lightning struck the iron fire escape at the easterly end of the building, severing the fire escape, one portion of which dropped to the ground in a twisted mass. Mr. Willoughby thinks that with the end of the plant ripped open, the terrific storm swept through the paint shop and assembly department, carrying away sections of the walls, roof and partitions with it. Windows all over the building were broken and water three or four inches deep covered the floor doing extensive damage to automobiles and equipment. The sprinkler system was also disconnected and drenched the place. Among the cars in the building at the time were Rolls-Royces, Lincolns, Franklins and high grade custom bodies.

“By Sunday afternoon, Willoughby’s workmen had made temporary repairs to the building to keep out damage from the elements. Mr. Willoughby said the wrecking of the building would postpone business but part of the business is being carried on at the old Pipe Foundry and this will enable the company to continue operations to some extent.”

The Utica Pipe Foundry was located at the corner of Broad Street and Dwyer Ave, sharing the opposite corner of city block occupied by the Willoughby factory. Organized in 1889 by Charles Millar, the firm went bankrupt in 1913 and Willoughby used a portion of the vacant structure from the late teens into the early thirties.

Small orders were built by Willoughby for Cadillac prior to Fisher’s acquisition of Fleetwood and Willoughby showed a La­Salle Sport Sedan at the 1928 New York Automobile Salon (Nov. 1927 show). Small lots of 10-20 formal Limousines and Town Cars with roll-up leather roofs and flush mounted winter hard-tops were built for Pierce Arrow and Packard in 1926 and 1927, but the bulk of Willoughby’s business from then on was for Lincoln.

Orders for Willoughby’s Lincoln Sport Sedan shown at the 1927 New York Salon exceeded expectations requiring the order to be fulfilled by Murray, one of Lincoln’s regular production body supplier. Many of Lincoln’s catalog models started life as one-off customs that were later built by Murray or another one of their high-volume body suppliers. When compared to standard Lincolns, Willoughby-built catalog customs had slightly larger bodies, larger interiors and more luxurious upholstery and appointments.

For Franklin’s Model 11A, Willoughby produced a small run of boat-tail sport coupes with an integral rumble seat, one of which was prominently featured at Reno, Nevada’s Harrah Collection.

After a several-year hiatus, Willoughby was called upon to produce a few bodies for the Marmon Series 75. In their 1985 history of the firm, ‘The Marmon Heritage’, George and Stacey Hanley write:

“The Willoughby Company of Utica, N.Y. built a 4-passenger sport sedan body ‘On Marmon 75' [chassis] in the fall of 1926. It was described as a distinct departure from usual design practice, having a very low belt line and correspondingly larger windows. The window increase was limited somewhat by having the reveals below the windows several times the usual width and painting them in a lighter shade. Windshield pillars were unusually slender, an English & Merrick vertical windshield was fitted and Triplex Safety Glass used throughout. It was painted Ocean Blue and Seafog Gray with an interior of two shades of green gray.”

At the 1928 New York Automobile Salon (Nov. 29-Dec. 4, 1927) Willoughby exhibited a Franklin Series 12 Town Car, a Packard and two Lincolns.

During the late 1920s volume at the Willoughby plant was so great that they subcontracted a portion of their paintwork to Albert U. Tescione, whose paint shop was located at 1216 Bleecker St., Utica, NY.

Born in Italy on December 20, 1885, Tescione emigrated to the United States in 1906, where he took a position with a local coachbuilder, most likely Willoughby, although his employer remains unknown. During the late teens he founded his own paint shop, the 1920 Utica directory listing him for the first time under carriage and auto painters at 1308 Bleecker St.

The 1930 US Census lists his home address as 1216 Bleecker St., his occupation as ‘Auto Painter’ in ‘Paint Shop’ also included is his wife Angeline A. (a dressmaker, nee Alfano, b. Nov. 20, 1892 in New York –d. Aug. 6, 1981); and son Nicholas A. (b. Sep. 15, 1911 in New York –d. Apr. 22, 1982 in Rochester, NY) Tescione. The Census states the value of real estate/property he owned at $30,000.

Unfortunately Tescione died on May 20, 1930, at the age of 44, the 1930 Utica directory listing Angeline A. Tescione, wid. Albert U., h. 1216 Bleecker St. In 1931 their son Nicholas enrolled in the Pharmacy program at SUNY Albany, and Nicholas and his mother moved to Albany, where they lived at 180 Delaware Ave until his 1934 graduation, when they moved to Rochester, NY where Nicholas took a job as a pharmacist. The 1940 US Census lists her living with Nicholas A. (28yo) and his wife Evelyn (nee Zacaroli, b. 1918-d.2011) Tascione (21yo), who had recently married, at 48 Bock St., Rochester.

The building that Tascione built at 1216 Bleecker St. remained a vital piece of Utica's automotive history, serving as the launching pad of the region's largest dealer group (Carbone Auto Group) and the home of Utica's most famous dragster, the 'Custom Auto Body' funny car.

The 1932 Utica directory lists Boleslaw (aka Benny) Naruc at 1216 Bleecker St. under ‘Automobile Repair’. He’s no longer listed in the 1933 directory having been replaced by William E. and Nina F. Walker. Walker’s occupation was conductor for the New York Central railway, so he likely occupied the apartments on the 2nd floor.

The 1934-36 Utica directories list the C & S Garage at 1216 Bleecker St. under ‘Auto Garages.’ The 1938 Utica directory lists C & S Motor Sales under ‘Automobile Dealers’ at 1216 Bleecker St., but no longer includes Willoughby, which constructed their last body in 1937.

Joseph A. Carbone (b. Oct 7, 1909-d. May 12, 1992), the C in C & S, is better known as the founder of the Carbone Auto Group, one of central New York’s best known dealership groups which today operates 25 franchises at 11 separate facilities in Central and Eastern New York State and Southern Vermont.

With $40 in hand, 19-yo milk-man Joseph A. Carbone and his friend, auto mechanic Phillip J. Sacco (b. Jan. 28, 1909-d. Jan. 1986), established the C & S Garage on Wetmore St. (near Albany) in Utica, N.Y. in 1929. The 1925 New York State Census lists Carbone’s occupation as ‘milk handler’, the 1930 US Census lists it as ‘truck-driver’ on a ‘milk route’. Soon afterwards they started dealing in used cars, purchasing a used Cadillac to use as a tow truck. In 1933 they relocated to 1216 Bleecker St. where brand-new Graham-Paige automobiles were added to the mix. In 1938, shortly before Graham-Paige went out of business, C & S took on distributorships for Studebaker and International Trucks. Shortly thereafter Carbone bought out Phil Sacco and renamed the business Carbone Motor Sales, which concentrated on the sales of Studebaker cars & trucks into the late-1950s.

During the next few decades the Carbone family, which grew to include his wife Inez E. (Paolozzi – they married on August 8, 1936), and two sons, Domenic (aka Don) and Alexander (aka Al) lived on the second floor. In 1957 Carbone acquired a Whitesboro, NY Dodge distributor and in 1963 closed down the Bleecker St facility consolidating the operation into a new structure located on Commercial Drive in Yorkville, which was christened Carbone Dodge City. Ford and Pontiac were added to the mix during the 1970s and today the group handles Buick, Cadillac, GMC, Chrysler, Jeep, Lincoln-Mercury, Honda, BMW, Nissan, Toyota, Subaru and Hyundai automobiles and Harley-Davidson and Buell motorcycles.

When the Carbones relocated to Yorkville in 1963, 1216 Bleecker St. was taken over by the Castronova family, who established Custom Auto Body, a successful body shop that kept the four Castronova boys, Fred, John, Phil and Vic out of trouble for the next half decade. Custom Auto Body sponsored a well-known funny car in the 1970s that was piloted by Phil Castronova to a number of AHRA/NHRA victories. The business was recently closed down and the property offered for sale.

Across the street at 1207 Bleecker St was Marie Rose Durante’s Froglett Tablet Co. The Durante family lived in the building and manufactured the tablets on the first floor. Organized in 1922 by Marie Rose Durante in order to manufacture cough tablets and candy by the 1930s it was known as the ‘Froglett Tablet and Candy Mfg. Co.’ Her grandson, Phil Durante, who now operates Durante Signs out of the same building, supplied the information that Albert U. Tescione painted bodies for Willoughby in the 1920s. Phil’s father was friends with the guys who painted Willoughby's bodies, many of which were painted across the street from the Durant’s store at Tescione’s paint shop by the following craftsmen; Frank LaPaglia, Buzzy Joquil, John Lucas and Joe Giambrone.

Willoughby had been a long-time member of the Society of Automotive Engineers and the minutes of a meeting held during 1928 were included in the December 1928 issue of the SAE Journal:

“F.D. Willoughby, of the Willoughby Co., remarked that style at any particular time is relative but that beauty is everlasting. He agreed with Mr. Northup that the beauty of the ensemble is the objective sought, and with Mr. Thomas as to the necessity for considering psychological effects. The idea expressed by Mr. Northup of the necessity of the cooperation of body engineers and chassis engineers was approved by Walter A. Graf of the Budd Mfg. Co. H. Pfau, of the LeBaron Co., differed with Mr. Northrup regarding the beauty of the tendency to think that the lower a car is the better it is. He said that a psychological effect must be considered in this connection; for instance, if a person sitting in a car has his eye-level below a certain height and is looking upward into the eyes of someone who is standing alongside the car, he has a certain sense of inferiority. For this reason Mr. Pfau thinks there is a danger of making an automobile too low. He mentioned that customers often say that they want the outside of their cars to look as small and as low as possible and the inside to appear as large as possible. He believes that a large effect for the interior can be obtained psychologically by using color, making the gradations from dark at the bottom to light at the top, and from dark at the back to light at the front.”

The following Willoughby-penned article appeared in the December 1928 issue of Autobody:

“Color and Body Design

“Color Should not be Merely Decoration but an Integral Part of the Design, Contributing to the Planned Silhouette of the Car

“By FRANCIS D. WILLOUGHBY, President, Willoughby Co., custom body builders, Utica, N. Y.

“COLOR has had always an important part in the automobile and present, offerings show the tremendous increase in the use of bright and attractive shades as compared with the conservative darker colors of coach blue, maroon, black, and green, that were the standards of the early days and of the vehicle, prior to the automobile.

“In recent searches for color treatment, car manufacturers and paint-and-lacquer companies, have turned to bird plumage, minerals and nature's big storehouse of flowers, for color blends which have produced some shades that were hitherto unthought-of, for this purpose.

“In the matter of combining the use of colors to properly portray the design features of the body, and the whole car 'and, conversely, in the designing of the body features toward the type of color treatment to be applied, I feel that the ultimate has not been reached and that there is much left to do.

“Too much in the past have we designed contours, offsets, reveals, and moldings to form a balanced mechanical picture and a good "eye line" and then have selected color to decorate the job. The proper use of color families, and combinations have a definite purpose, should have governed perhaps the designer's hand in connection with the ideas for which the design is created.


“I feel there has been too much attention paid to intimate or minute effects of the exterior lines, moldings, etc., of the car, with not enough attention to the bolder picture effect that should be the basis of the eye appeal.

“The elements of beauty also should not be those of static beauty as of the car standing still (with the possible exception of the showroom floor) but as of the car in motion. The factor of control today in design for the exterior should be the portrayal of motion dressed as attractively as possible. This means the use of only the bolder and stronger lines, and the proper accentuation of such lines to "give the flash effect" of the main motif, properly set into relief by colors—fine hairline striping has no place in the "silhouette" or "flash" effects.

“Also, only convention and history are the reasons why body upperworks should be black. Solid-panel backgrounds of one color, with the picture-frame and silhouette effects in a contrasting color, have an entirely new usage in our idea. Black in lacquer finish is now one of the most attractive colors for this purpose, especially when combined with offsets of other colors such as silver, gold, orange or green.


“To obtain the ideal of this thought in design—the elimination of the intricate and small details of the exterior, and the inclusion of bolder accentuation of the motif of the car design—there is required greater skill in the design layout. It thus demands a simplification of ideas but a greater originality in conception. Under this idea the sweeps of the panels, the turn-under of the sides, the roof crown, the molding lines, the proportion of the reveals and all items that enter into a mechanical design, plus the color-design conception, must be correct in detail and relation. They must replace, through their sheer beauty of simplicity and perfect relation, the attempt to attract through an artful trick-up of fancy panels, moldings without a purpose and color and stripes added as "decorations."

“In other words, the entire scheme of the eye appeal of the car exterior should be thought out thoroughly, and expressed by the designer all the way through to the very finish in color treatment.


“On the other hand I would put into the interior all the fine beauty of detail and intimate character that is to reflect the personal home of the-'owner. Added to the appeal of a comfortable luxury of deep and restful-looking cushions and backs should be portrayed the attractiveness of fine detailed work accurately and precisely done. This can be expressed in simple or elaborate fashion and include touches of period effects as may suit the whim of the owner.

“There is not a thing within the interior of the car that is not within intimate nearness to the occupant and therefore there 'should not be a thing that will not serve its place, in the whole scheme to please. Here again the correct effect cannot be produced with cheap or homely fabric decorated with fancy hardware to lend it "class," but each part in detail should be properly worked together to produce a complete picture.


“The bodies exhibited by the Willoughby Co. in the current Salon of four distinct types contain an effort, with some limitations, to show these things. Into them has been put the conception of color treatment when making the designs. Perhaps one of the most striking examples of this is the Lincoln "town sedan" in which two shades of green have been used on the exterior and interior. Their complimentary arrangement in connection with a simple exterior treatment of lines has the intention of carrying out to a degree, the ideas that I have presented. This model has been selected by the customer as the basis of a new design from the lines of which some of the regular production at its plant is being built.

“The Packard 'sedan-limousine,' in a bold way and with the sportif effect, combines a cracker-buff and blue combination with extreme contrast. The Franklin town car, with a combination of tan and mulberry and black, shows a departure from the previous conventions in the use of the darker and lighter colors. The Lincoln limousine, with two tones of gray supplemented by carrying the upholstery color to line out the reveals that frame the vision into the interior, exhibits a large job of exceeding height and length where the attempt is made to reduce the appearance and size into h pleasing exterior treatment. In this again the conventions that have surrounded a car of this kind are being left alone and a new thought has been attempted.”

A peculiar 1929 Lincoln Model L 4-Door Willoughby limousine in the collection of the Gilmore Car Museum, Hickory Corners, Michigan features a number of custom features. According to her son, its original owner, Mrs. Alexander (Emma E.) Stein, of Greenwich, Connecticut, refused delivery of the car because she didn't like the restyled 1929 Lincoln fenders and grill. The dealer shipped the car to Utica where Willoughby replaced the offending fenders and radiator shell with 1928 units. They also moved the side-mounted spare tires to the rear, providing the owner with additional cushioning in the event of a rear-end collision. Other custom features include a roof-mounted brass luggage rack, tinted windows and deleted rear jump-seats which were replaced by elaborate walnut cabinetry.

For the Duesenberg Model J chassis Willoughby produced a variety of closed bodies in four styles including 1 town car, 20 five-passenger clubs sedans, with the remainder being 5-passenger Berlines and 7-passenger limousines. Historian Fred Roe believed 49 Duesenberg chassis were outfitted with Willoughby bodies, though only a handful remain, as most of the club sedan and limousine bodies were replaced by trendier phaeton and roadster bodies by their second and third owners.

Willoughby also supplied all-weather town car bodies for the 1929, 1930 and 1931 Pierce-Arrow. Martin Regitko recalled:

“The Pierce Arrow Town Car which we built in small lots of 10-20 jobs. This job had to be designed and built in nine weeks. It had a roll-up leather front roof and a flush fitting mountable hard roof.”

The February 1, 1930 issue of Automotive Industries reported that the principals of Lincoln’s custom body suppliers were seen at the Detroit Automobile Show:

“Custom Body Builders See Evolution in Coachwork.

“Detroit, Jan.21 – No revolution, but an evolution in color effects and interior designs is predicted for the automobile industry by leading custom body builders who were here for the Detroit Automobile Show.

“Hermann A. Brunn, president of Brunn & Co., Inc. of Buffalo, and Francis Willoughby, president of the Willoughby Company of Utica, together with John B. Judkins, president of the John B. Judkins Company of Merrimac, Mass., were visitors at the exhibit here last week and each expressed gratification at the exhibits and the crowds in attendance.

“Mr. Brunn has just returned from France, where he attended the Paris Salon and while in nowise disturbed over the progress made by the French body builders he nevertheless paid unqualified tribute to the daring of the continental designers.

“Mr. Willoughby, who has devoted special attention to colors in his custom built bodies, was of the opinion that the higher class cars would continue to show the same refinements and dignity, but that still bolder combinations would be attempted in certain other productions.”

The 1930 US Census lists the Willoughby household as follows:

Father, Francis D. Willoughby (b.1888); mother, Delia C. Willoughby (b.1889); daughter, Mary F. Willoughby (b.1922); daughter, Anne B. Willoughby (b.1824); daughter, Barbara J. Willoughby (b.1927); Francis’ sister, Ernestine B Willoughby (b.1886); and their maid Flora J. Hardiman (b.1911).

In 1931 Willoughby began making an attractive streamlined two window Sport Sedan for Lincoln and by 1934 the body was included in Lincoln's "Salon Body Types" catalog. From the Depression on, the number of series-built custom bodies required by the automakers was greatly reduced, and an individual order of 10 to 25 was now considered a large one. The November 30, 1931 issue of the Utica Daily Press highlighted the firm’s appearance at the 27th annual New York Automobile Salon, which was held Nov. 30 through Dec. 5, 1931:

“Willoughby Exhibits Three Bodies at Automobile Salon

“Francis D. Willoughby of the Willoughby Company left yesterday for New York to attend the opening of the automobile salon at the Hotel Commodore. This annual display brings together the exhibits of custom-built coachwork submitted by the best body makers of this country and Europe. There will be about 60 cars shown.

“The salon, being concerned chiefly with expensive cars, will attract unusual attention this year. Mr. Willoughby said. Interest shown by the public in these exhibits is expected to indicate the trend of the business and tell whether there will be an active demand for the custom-built jobs.

“Certain preliminary indications suggest a favorable outlook for business of this kind, Mr. Willoughby said, although he added that decision would have to be reserved until the salon had given the public a chance to express its desires.

“The Willoughby Company is showing three bodies. One on a Duesenberg chassis is a five-passenger sport Berline, elaborately designed and fitted with walnut trim. It sells for about $17,000. The other bodies are on the new 12 cylinder Lincoln chassis. One is a panel brougham and the other an inclosed drive limousine. These cars will probably be priced around $7,000.

“This salon is the 27th annual event of the kind.”

Unfortunately economic conditions dictated that the 27th Salon would be the last, and from 1932 on the few coachbuilders that remained were absorbed in to the January New York Automobile Shows.

The Lincoln Panel Brougham was an attractive square-backed old-fashioned limousine that was built in small numbers into 1937. Marginally more popular were Willoughby’s attractive fastback coupes limousines and touring sedans of 1937-1938. Very similar to Lincoln’s standard coupes and sedans, they featured much more luxurious interiors and appointments, and a price to match.

Although it was undoubtedly the most attractive Model K available, only five 5-passenger Willoughby Sport Sedans are thought to have been built between 1937 and 1939. The Sports Sedans included individually adjustable front and rear seats, the latter equipped with a folding center armrest, which allowed seating for five in a pinch.

As sales of the Lincoln declined Willoughby searched for new products, and although there’s no evidence it was actually constructed, an existing Willoughby blueprint depicts a 1936 Cadillac police patrol car designed for a 160” wheelbase Cadillac commercial chassis for the Merville Motor Car Co., a Cadillac dealer located in Binghamton, New York. The patrol car coachwork looked similar to the high-headroom Cadillac-based professional cars offered by others and it’s entirely possible that Willoughby constructed hearses, ambulances and patrol cars in addition to their well-known sedans and limousines, although the evidence is lacking.

During 1937 and 1938 Willoughby built a handful of Lincoln K-based 7-passenger touring cars. One 1937 Lincoln Model K Willoughby Touring was purchased by the city of New York for use as a parade car. Dignitaries such as Howard Hughes rode in the car during the ticker-tape parade that followed his 91-hour trip around the world in July of 1938. The ex-New York City car can be seen at the St. Louis Museum of Transportation. A similar vehicle was owned by the State of California for use as Governor Frank F. Merriam’s parade car.

For a number of years the Gilmore Car Museum in Hickory Corners, Michigan owned a 1938 Lincoln Model K Willoughby Limousine, one of only 5 known to have been constructed. In their final few years of operation, Willoughby built less than 50 bodies per year, fully 1/10 of their peak in the mid-twenties. From 1936-1938 Willoughby was relying upon Lincoln for their livelihood and sales of the expensive and overweight Model K were almost non-existent by 1939 and Willoughby was forced to close its doors. A single Willoughby-bodied 1939 Lincoln was built using a leftover 5-passenger Sport Sedan. Priced at $6,900, it was also one of the last Model K’s produced, the line being retired in 1940.

Unlike many of its competitors, Willoughby avoided bankruptcy and Francis D. Willoughby tried desperately to sell the business. By the end of January 1939, it was obvious that no buyers were forthcoming, so he decided to separate the plant from the equipment, with the later to be offered in a February 2, 1939 auction by Samuel T. Freeman & Co., Boston auctioneers.

Starting in mid-January classified advertisements were placed in regional papers. One published in the Utica Daily Press on January 31, 1939 follows:


“Will be sold at Public Auction. 1 day. Thursday, Feb. 2, Starting at 10 a.m.

“Over 600 lots, including thousands of items, under direction of Sam T. Freeman & Co., Auctioneers. Inspection invited prior to sale. Catalogue on request.

“Willoughby Company, DWYER AVE. and TURNER ST.”

A more detailed advertisement was placed in larger cities which read:


“Woodworking Machinery; Metal Shop Machinery; Equipment and Supplies

“WILLOUGHBY COMPANY (Automobile Bodies) on the premises, DWYER AVENUE and TURNER STREET, UTICA, N.Y., THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 2, 1939, AT 10:00 A. M.

“WOODWORKING MACHINERY: 2 Baxter Whitney No. 47A Electric 2 Spindle Ball Bearing shapers, Baxter Whitney No. 23 Electric Surface Planer, Baxter Whitney Electric Saw Table, Fay & Egan No. 501 A Vertical Hollow Chisel Mortiser, 3 Smith Tenoning Machines, Rogers 16" Jointer, Boot Vertical Electric Drill, Vulcan Electric Brazer, Edmund No. 1B Drill Press, Hip Saws, Swing Saws, General Electric 10 K.W. Frequency Changer Set, etc.

“METAL SHOP MACHINERY; 4 Pettingell Power Spring Hammers, Pettingell 5’ Rotary Throat Shear, Keene Vertical No. 131 Metal Shear, Beading Machines, Kick Press, 3 Haskins Electric Flexible Shaft Polishing Machine.

“FACTORY EQUIPMENT: Dry System Sectional Drying Oven, Ingersoll Rand No. 20 Air Compressor, DeVilbiss Spray Guns, Regulators, Electric Drills, 1000 Steel "C" Clamps - 3" to 12", Saw Blades, 1350 Hand Files, Anvils, Vises, Forges, Work Benches, Factory Trucks, Glue Heaters, Belt Lapers, Welding Rod, 10 Singer Sewing Machines, Eastman Electric Cloth Cutter, etc.

“SUPPLIES: 1100 Boxes Chrome, Nickel, Brass, Wood and Machine Screws, 1,500 lbs. Aluminum Moldings, 500 Feet Cowhide and Kid.

“10,000 FEET KILN DRIED TOUGH ASH, Rubber Channeling, Felt, Duck, Wire, Tacks, Nails, Automobile Body Accessories, Handles, Locks, Brackets, Switches, Hinges, Vanity Sets, Clocks, Lacquer, Enamel Pumice, Colors, etc.

“By order of Willloughby Company, Owner.

“Descriptive Catalog on Request to


Unfortunately, a blizzard swept through Utica the day before the auction and many of out-of-town bidders failed to attend. Others conspired to keep the prices low, and refused to bid against each other (a common practice that still remains to this day). The only item kept by Francis D. Willoughby was a large high-wheeled omnibus built by his father in the early days of the firm that featured a glass-enclosed passenger compartment with an overhead luggage rack and the driver’s seat mounted high over the front wheels.

Willoughby’s designer, Martin Regitko, (b.Nov. 1889-d.Dec. 1981) went to work as a stylist for Edsel Ford at the Lincoln design facility. He was given the assignment of working up the full size draft and clay mock-up of the 1939 Lincoln Continental prototype, which was designed by Bob Gregorie. It was then transferred to Lincoln Body Engineering which was headed by another old custom builder – Henry Crecelius formerly of Rollston./Rollson. While the prototype was under construction, Regitko showed Edsel Ford a modified plan moving the spare tire inside the trunk, as was the styling trend of the day. Luckily Edsel rejected the idea saying” It’s very nice, but I want it to be strictly continental.”

The February 5, 1939 Utica Observer-Dispatch included a picture of a horse-drawn Willoughby omnibus with the following caption:

“Utica-Made Omnibus Salvaged from Auction Sale for Museum:

“That relic of another generation, once a resplendent omnibus or "station wagon" built at the Willoughby Company here 30 years ago and never used, was intended for a swank hotel or country estate to meet guests arriving by train. It was salvaged from the company's liquidating auction sale last week and may find its way into a museum. Nick Economus is shown admiring the vehicle while Rufus DeSantis, a company' employee, sits in the high driver's seat. Upper inset shows Addison B. Freeman, Boston, auctioneer while lower inset is Francis D. Willoughby, president of the company, which paid the highest wages of any local industry just before closing last July.”

The February 5, 1939 Utica Observer-Dispatch also presented the results of the sale:

“Auction Scatters Valuable Equipment of Once Thriving Utica Industry.

“Once a flourishing Utica industry doing an annual business of $1,500,000 in the building of custom-made automobile bodies, the Willoughby Company, now in process of liquidation, reached a climax in closing its affairs with an auction sale that disposed of machinery, equipment and supplies.

“From a financial standpoint the sale on Friday was disappointing to Francis D. Willoughby, president of the company, due to unfavorable weather which kept many out-of-town bidders away.

“Auctioneer is Delayed

“The plant at Dwyer Ave. and Turner St., which at times employed from 50 to 300 skilled woodworkers, has been closed since last July. Although stripped of its machinery, the building is still equipped with a heating system and shafting and may be leased for other industrial enterprises. Some machinery and equipment, unsold at the auction, will be disposed of privately during the next few days, it is expected. But as far as Willoughby is concerned, his plans are undecided.

“Addison B. Freeman, one of the three brothers of the firm of Samuel T. Freeman & Co., Boston auctioneers since 1805, was delayed by adverse weather in arriving for the sale, scheduled for 10 a.m., but with the aid of several assistants, he moved swiftly from one department ot another on three floors of the building and called the bids on 529 item.

“Among the 300 bidders were junk men, factory executives, dealers in second-hand machinery who were buying for speculative purposes and contractors who required tools and supplies in their business.

“$2,500 Machine Brings $475

“That some of the bidders apparently had agreed in advance among themselves on what items they particularly wanted and would not bid against one another was evident. Then the successful bidder would announce that he wanted the article transferred to some other person’s bill. Occasionally these friendly bidders would gather in a corner and quarrel because one of the other had boosted the price of a machine when it was about to be sold for a mere pittance.

“One of the most valuable single pieces of machinery was an electric surface planer, considered the finest type of woodworking machine made, and purchased originally for $2,500. Bidding opened at $100 and the successful bidder obtained it finally for $475. Other machines brought ridiculously low amounts, such as $3 for a foundry grinder which cost $300 when new and 25 cents each for a dozen four-wheel caster body trucks, used in moving heavy objects around the factory.

“Nearly a ton of aluminum belt molding was sold as scrap for 15½ cents a pound, and about 1,500 lbs. of rustless gutter channels brought only 3 cents a pound. Band saw blades 36-inches long were knocked down for 30 cents each, compared to the original cost of $3.50.

“Imported automobile clocks that cost $8 each were sold for $1, with vanity cases, and a big assortment of steel screw clamps went for 5-and-10 cent store prices.

“Old Bus On Hand

Some relics of the early days of the company, when it turned out luxuriously appointed carriages and sleighs, were retained by the concern and may be sold later to museums or as properties to motion picture producers.

“Among them was an unused omnibus build about 30 years ago and kept in storage for more than a quarter of a century. It is a high-wheeled affair known as a “station wagon” which at one time was in demand by owners of large country estates or swank hotels and used to meet their guests at railroad stations. The compartment for guests is enclosed in thick plate glass, while the driver’s seat is mounted high over the wheels. Luggage is carried in an overhead space similar to the style of stage coaches.

“Edward A. Willoughby, father of the present company head, conducted the business alone and also as a partnership with William H. Owen before the Willoughby Company was organized in 1903. The building had been erected 50 years ago by the Utica Carriage Company whose liquidated business was taken over by the senior Willoughby. Three generations of that family have been in that line of activity.

“Closed Bodies Were Special

“In the transition from carriages to automobile bodies at the turn of the century, foreign-made chassis were fitted with bodies at the Willoughby plant. The first quantity order for car bodies in the United States coming from a New York manufacturer of electric vehicles was split three ways and the Willoughby firm obtained a share.

“Most of the automobiles manufactured in the early days were touring car models, so that closed bodies had to be made specially. At one time the Lozier Company, pioneers in the field, went stripped chassis, with only motors and transmissions, to be assembled at the Willoughby plant. The local company also made special bodies for Cole, Franklin, Studebaker, Marmon, Rolls-Royce of America, Packard, Cadillac and Lincoln cars.

“Former President Coolidge used two Lincolns with Willoughby bodies and the family of former President Hoover had three of them. Presidential cars were always dark blue with a narrow striped broadcloth upholstering, and the chief executive’s coat of arms applied to the door panel. When the economical Coolidge retired from the White House he bought one of these used Lincolns and took it to his home in Northhampton, Mass.

“1,000 Bodies Ordered

“In 1914 the Studebaker Company, then located in Detroit, gave the Utica company and order for more than 1,000 bodies - a million dollar order. To fill it within a year the company had to rent out side space and the staff of employees was increased from 150 to 300 with a weekly payroll of more than $10,000. Skilled labor at that time received from, 50 to 85 cents an hour, considered big pay back then. The Willoughby Company had the reputation of paying the highest wages in Utica at the time it closed last July. During all the years of operation, the company was free from labor trouble.

“Wages paid by the Willoughby Company ranged from $100,000 to $500,000 a year.

“While the automobile industry has forged ahead rapidly in turning out stylish stock models at popular prices, there were always buyers, particularly among the wealthy, who demanded special bodies that provided the utmost comfort and these were built by the Willoughby Company among dignified lines which remained in style for several years. But economic conditions have changed in the last few years and the trend has been in favor of standard models.

“Some day, when the financial status of the wealthy class becomes more stabilized than it is now, Willoughby believes the pendulum will swing back to a vogue of deluxe bodies with special appointments for the particular motorist, especially among the older folk. Just now, however, there aren’t enough of those people demanding them to make the business profitable.”

A number of Willoughby employees remained in the business, its chief designer, Martin Regitko, found employment in Detroit, and Joseph W. Mendel formed the King’s Body Works in Rome, New York. Unfortunately the skill sets of the owner were no longer in demand and Willoughby left the automobile business for the insurance business, finding employment with the Utica Mutual Insurance Co. His beloved wife, Delia, passed away in 1942 and following a long illness Francis D. Willoughby passed away in 1955. Willoughby was survived by his three daughters, Mrs. Donald C. Claeys, Mrs. Robert I. Cullen, and Mrs. John D. Newlove (all of Utica), and over 20 grandchildren.

As a coachbuilder, Wil­loughby always enjoyed the highest reputation. He supplied at least five cars to the White House (during the Coolidge and Hoover administrations). At its peak, Willoughby employed 300 craftsmen and, as the Depression wore on, Francis Willoughby refused to com­promise his standards and perhaps felt too reluctant to let his people go.

The following obituary was published in the August 15, 1955 Utica Daily Press:

“Car Body Maker F.D. Willoughby Dies at Age 68

“Francis D. Willoughby, 117 Proctor Blvd., died August 13, 1955 in St. Elizabeth Hospital after a long illness.

“Mr. Willoughby was associated with his father, the late Edward Willoughby Body Works which pioneered in the making of automobile bodies.

“The Willoughby firm produced carriage bodies and was an outstanding Utica industry before the advent of the automobile. It turned to the production of automobile bodies and custom bodies, including those for the Lincoln Motor Car Company.

“As president of the company for 20 years following the death of his father in 1916, Mr. Willoughby made frequent trips to the motor car producing centers in Michigan. He continued as the company was dissolved in 1938. Later he became associated with the Utica Mutual Insurance Co. in which he continued active up to the time of his illness.

“Mr. Willoughby was born in Rome, April 30, 1887, son of Edward A, and Mary Bingham Willoughby. As a child he came to Utica with his family. He attended local schools and was graduated from Utica Free Academy. He graduated from Hamilton College in 1909.

“He was married to Delia C. Callahan who died in 1942. He leaves three daughters, Mrs. Donald C. Claeys, Mrs. Robert I. Cullen, both of Utica, and Mrs. John D Newlove, New Mexico, as sister, Miss Ernestine R. Willoughby, Utica, and 13 grandchildren.”

The former Willoughby plant still exists on the North side of Dwyer Avenue between Turner and Pitcher Streets. During the early 1970s a fire swept through the top floors and the owners had the top two floors removed. It was later used by the Associated Paper Products (1975), Abelove Linen Service and Myers-Laine Corp., and although it’s unrecognizable, the main structure remains, and was recently remodeled by Cobblestone Construction Services, who use it as their headquarters.

© 2012 Mark Theobald - with special thanks to Thomas M. Tryniski and Ed Fiore

The grandson of a former Willoughby employee sent me the following letter:

“Two Custom Bodies by John Motycka

"Saw the writeup on your project in Hemmings and thought you might be interested in the attached pictures.  I am particularly interested in the Willoughby Auto Body Company as my grandfather, (after whom I am named) worked for Willoughby in Utica, after he immigrated to this country in 1901.  I believe he was a shop foreman or supt.  The pictures are of my father in cars whose bodies I am quite certain were made in the Willoughby shop, perhaps by my grandfather after hours?  I am most certain of the Model T one, and suspect the Mercer as well due to the similarities.  The bodies were made by my grandfather for my father.  I have a diary of my father's that mentions his father telling him to leave his model T home for a semester (Cornell U) as he wanted to do some work on it, and later entries where my father remarks about the new body on his "Fliver" when he returned home (ca. 1920).

"Notice the similarities to the Pontiac Hill Climber as well.

"I very much enjoy your research and writings.

John Motycka, Coventry, CT."

(John Motycka’s August 11, 1935 obituary states he was a foreman at Willoughby)


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A Bibliography of the History and Life of Utica - Utica Manufacture and Industry: Willoughby Company pp187

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Auction Scatters Valuable Equipment of Once Thriving Utica Industry – Utica Observer-Dispatch February 5, 1939

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Car Body Maker F.D. Willoughby Dies at Age 68 – Utica Daily Press August 15, 1955

Utica’s Latest Industry – Utica Daily Press, April 3, 1897 pp4

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Audrey Lewis - Memories of Willoughby Vivid for Some - Utica Observer Dispatch, March 4, 1989 ppC1

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Martin Regitko - Willoughby – the Classic Car, Winter 1961 pp14-23

Hugo Pfau - Willoughby – Cars & Parts Oct 1971

Hugo Pfau - More On the Willoughby Company - Cars & Parts November 1973

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Beverly Rae Kimes – Willoughby, Automobile Quarterly

Rome N.Y. - Our City and its People - pp165

Daniel Wager - Our County and Its People (Oneida County, NY) pub. 1896

Samuel W. Durant - History of Oneida County, New York, pub. 1878 

Roger Morrison - 1925 Rolls-Royce Springfield Silver Ghost Salamanca - Car Collector - August 1987 pp 28-35

Charles Darwin Bingham – The Bingham Genealogy, pub. 1917

Col. Theodore A. Bingham –Genealogy of the Bingham Family, pub. 1898

Donna Bingham Munger - The Bingham family in the United States, pub. 1996 

Annie Wittenmyer - History of the Woman's Temperance Crusade, pub. 1878

Marvin E. Arnold - Lincoln and Continental Classic Motorcars: The Early Years

Mark A. Patrick - Lincoln Motor Cars: 1920 through 1942 Photo Archive

Brooks T. Brierley - There is no mistaking a Pierce-Arrow, pub. 1986

Thomas E. Bonsall - The Lincoln Motor Car: Sixty Years of Excellence

Thomas E. Bonsall – Coachwork on Lincoln

Thomas E Bonsall - The Lincoln Story: the Postwar Years

Thomas E. Bonsall - Lincoln: Seventy Years Of Fine Car Heritage

Mrs. Wilfred C. Leland - Master of Precision: Henry M. Leland

Maurice Hendry - Lincoln: The Car of State

George Philip Hanley, Stacey Pankiw Hanley – The Marmon Heritage, pub, 1985

Oneida County NY Historical Society

Vintage Automobile Dealerships and Automobilia

Extended Auto Warranties
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Car Shows
State by State directory of car shows; includes new car shows and classic auto events.

Auto Buying Guide
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Car Books, Models & Diecasts
Your one stop shop for automotive books, models, die-casts & collectibles.


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