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Eight Wheel Motor Vehicle Co., Fadgl Flexible System, Fageol Auto Train
Rollie B. Fageol Co., 1913-1914; Alameda, California; Fageol Auto Train Inc., 1914-1916; Fadgl Flexible System Inc., 1915-1917; Mines Transportation Co., 1917-1918; American Highway Transportation Co., 1921-1922; Eight Wheel Motor Vehicle Co., 1918-1931; San Francisco, California
Associated Builders
Fageol Motors Co., Twin Coach, Fageol Truck and Coach Co., ACF, Brill

This biography encompasses the business career of Rollie B. Fageol, the eldest of the four Fageol (pronounced fadjl) brothers, Rollie, Frank, William and Claud, an amazingly productive family of French, Prussian and Welsh descent who held over 125 US Patents between them, many of which were influential in the development of early motor trucks and buses. The Fageols held numerous early automobile distributorships and were responsible for the manufacture of the Fadgl road train, Fageol automobile, Fageol motor truck, Fageol tractor, Fageol Safety Coach, Eight-Wheel Motor bus and truck, and the Twin Coach bus and Twin Coach/Fageol line of delivery trucks.

Before the family relocated to California in the early 1900s the Fageols had been involved in various automotive ventures in and around Des Moines, Iowa, the city where their parents (John J. Fageol & Mary M. Jones) had relocated to after their September 7, 1876 marriage in Hancock County, Illinois.

The family patriarch, John Jacque Fageol, was born on November 15, 1854 in Nauvoo, Hancock County, Illinois to Antoine and Anna Mary (Albrecht) Fageol. Antoine Fageol (b. June 8, 1812-d.Feb. 27, 1877) was a French national and the 1850 US Census list his occupation as farmer, Anna Mary (Albrecht) Fageol was born in Prussia.

John’s siblings included Eugenia (b. 1850); Mary (b.1852-d.Oct 6, 1931 – mar. to Joseph Jamison); Frederick (b. Nov. 7, 1859-d.1860); Louis H. (b. 1866 d- 1924) and Magdaline (aka Lena) Elizabeth (b. Apr 3, 1861-mar. to Wilson) Fageol. Although Antoine and Mary were both residents of Hancock County, Illinois at the time of the 1850 US Census, they are noticeably absent from subsequent enumerations.

Mary Maria Jones (John’s wife) was born on March 16, 1857 in Appanoose, Hancock County, Illinois to William (b.1827 in Ohio) and Elizabeth (b.1834) Jones, two Welsh-American farmers. Her siblings included Alathier (b. 1859) Emma A. (b.1860); Diantha (b. 1862); and William B. (b.1868) Jones. The 1870 US Census reveals that her father William, and sister Alathier had either left home or passed away and, as in the 1860 Census, the Jones family was living on the farm of Mary’s paternal grandfather, Samuel Jones (b.1796 in Md.)

The 1880 US Census (enumerated on June 24, 1880) lists the Fageols of our story in Lincoln township, Polk County, Iowa, the household consisting of John J. (25yo) a farmer, Mary M. (23yo) keeping house and Rollen B. (2yo) Fageol.

The 1885 Iowa State Census lists the family as residents of Douglas Township, Polk County, Iowa. John’s occupation being farmer, the household consisting of John (30yo); Mary (28yo); Rollen Belle (6yo); William Burton (4yo); and Frank Raymond (2yo) Fageol.

Rollen Belle Fageol, John and Mary’s eldest son, went by various first names throughout his career, the most common being Rollie B., although Rollen and Rowley were sometimes used.

Vital statistics of the Fageol family follows:

John Jacque Fageol was born November 15, 1854 in Nauvoo, Hancock County, Illinois and died on October 20, 1925 in St. Helena, Napa County, California.

Mary Maria Jones (John’s wife) was born on March 16, 1857 in Hancock County, Illinois and died on August 19, 1928 in Oakland, Alameda County, California.

Rollen (aka Rollie & Rowley) Belle Fageol was born on May 3, 1878 in Ankeny, Polk County, Iowa and died on April 4, 1942 in Los Angeles County, California.

William Burton* Fageol was born on July 29, 1880 in Ankeny, Polk County, Iowa and died on October 24, 1955 in Kent, Portage County, Ohio.

Frank Raymond Fageol was born on September 14, 1882 in Des Moines, Polk County, Iowa and died on August 8, 1965 in Contra Costa County, California.

Claud Harrison Fageol was born on November 6, 1888 in Des Moines, Polk County, Iowa and died on December 24, 1968 in Portland, Multnomah County, Oregon.

Hazel Elizabeth Fageol was born on March 19, 1890 in Des Moines, Polk County, Iowa and died on August 20, 1978 in Modesto, Stanislaus County, California.

*Correspondence with William B. Fageol's grandson, William Bertram Fageol III, reveals his grandfather's middle name was Bertram, not Burton, however there's some disagreement within the family as to which is correct (not surprisingly he's in the Bertram camp). Regardless, William III reports that to the best of his knowledge his grandfather never used it.

Ankeny, Polk County, Iowa – Rollie and William’s birthplace - was a northern suburb of Des Moines located approximately 6 miles from the city center.

Although numerous ‘biographies’ of the firm claim the Fageol brothers built their own 8-passenger steam bus in 1899, Frank R. Fageol, in an article entitled ‘Fageol Reviews Transit Milestone’ which appeared in a 1946 issue of Metropolitan (pp328) states they “owned and operated”, not built, the vehicle:

“My late brother, Mr. R. B. Fageol, and I each operated a small Dos-a-Dos type four-passenger steam automobile at the country fairs in Iowa in 1898, where we hauled passengers in the fairgrounds as a novelty at ten cents per ride.

“We owned and operated an eight-passenger mobile steam bus in Des Moines, Iowa, in 1899, operating between downtown Des Moines and the State Fair Grounds at Des Moines under the name of Fageol Auto Livery.”

Later that year Frank and Rollie constructed a gasoline-powered cycle car in their father’s barn (located at 1728 Des Moines St., Des Moines) that was powered by a two-cylinder air-cooled Crest engine equipped with a novel carburetor/throttle consisting of a lamp wick set in the top of the gas tank, the engine speed regulated by raising or lowering the wick in the gasoline. The Crest engine was a product of the Crest Mfg. Co. of Cambridge, Mass., a pioneer air-cooled engine manufacturer who also offered the Crest and Crest-Mobile air-cooled gasoline cars during the early 1900s. Frank recalled the Fageol bros.’ prototype in a 1954 issue of Metropolitan:

“Fageol Predicts - by Frank R. Fageol Chairman of the Board Twin Coach Company

“In 1900 F.R. Fageol and Rollie B. Fageol made and drove this first gasoline automobile to be built in Des Moines, Iowa. First, I consider by far the most important transit happening in the last fifty years to be the growth of passenger automobiles from 32,929 in 1903 to the present staggering 45 million, accompanied by some two million miles of hard surfaced.”

Frank and Rollie’s car was mentioned in the February 27, 1900 issue of the Des Moines Daily News:

“R. B. Fageol, son of J. J. Fageol of East Seventeenth and Des Moines streets has invented an automobile that promises to make a stir in manufacturing circles. It is to run by gasoline. A company is to be formed for making the machine In Des Moines. Contracts are prepared and will probably be signed soon, by Stillwell of Kansas City, Evans of the Essex block, this city, Tood of New York and W.P. Chase Co. of this city, by which about $100,000 is to be raised to start the plant. The machine weighs 350 pounds and is said to be a wonder.”

The same paper’s July 10, 1900 issue reported on a possible problem with Rollie’s patent:



“A London Machine Just Completed and Patentee Conflicts With Des Moines Auto—Settlement May be Made.

“A company recently formed for the manufacture of automobiles under the invention and expected patent of Mr. Fageol of this, city, has run amuck.

“While negotiating for a patent at Washington, the representatives of Mr. Fageol discovered a London patent, which is said to slightly conflict with the patent applied for on the Des Moines machine. As a result, negotiations were immediately begun for a settlement of the difficulty, which is now thought will be completed within a few days, after which the company will be incorporated here, and begin business.

“It was originally intended to use a portion of the Warfield-Chase building on Sixth-street, but the entire seven floors are occupied with the wholesale ware of this company. Another building will be secured with more commodious quarters, and the manufacture of automobiles begun.”

Rollie B. Fageol applied for a US Patent on the vehicle on September 11, 1900 which was awarded on June 4, 1901 (Automobile - US675379 - Grant - Filed Sep 11, 1900 - Issued June 4, 1901 – Rollie B. Fageol) but I could locate no further evidence that the vehicle got beyond the prototype stage. The most novel feature of the vehicle was its novel front and rear suspension - the front tires were mounted in twin bicycle forks – but no information was offered on its power-plant or transmission.

The 1895-97 Des Moines city directories list Rollin B. Fageol, machinist, for J.M. Ferree, sewing machines, staying with his parents at 1728 Des Moines. The 1899-1902 directories lists him as a representative of the W.P. Chase Co., a local bookstore and stationer. The 1902 directory has his occupation as machinist, but the 1903 directory lists him as president of the National Crude Oil Burner Co. The 1904 directory lists him as mech. eng., Fageol-Aldrich Mfg. Co.; res. 1115 E. Walnut.

Although the financing for his car fell through, Rollie enjoyed some success with his crude oil burner (Crude Petroleum Burner – US Pat. No. 719573 - Granted - Filed Apr 18, 1902 - Issued Feb 3, 1903 - R.B. Fageol) that was offered by the National Crude Oil Burner Co. Organized in July of 1902, and capitalized at $15,000, N.C.O.B. Co.’s offices were located at No. 604 Iowa L & T building, its factory at 214 Locust St., Des Moines. Its officers included: R.B. Fageol, pres.; J.C. Tate, v-pres. and genl. mgr.; W.F. Farrah, sec.; E.L. Forbes, treas. The firm was mentioned in his September 16, 1902 marriage announcement which appeared in the September 9, 1902 issue of the Des Moines Daily News:


“Rolle B. Fageol, Inventor Marries Miss Maylou Arthur

“A wedding of great interest will be that of Mr. Rolle B. Fageol, inventor of the Fageol Crude Oil burner, to Miss Maylou Arthur, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Robert C. Arthur of Kant Des Moines. The marriage will be celebrated Tuesday, Sept. 16, at 4 p.m. The young people will leave the following day for Los Angeles to spend the winter. Mr. Fageol will represent the National Fageol Burner Co., of which he is president.”

The March 1, 1903 issue of Cycle and Automobile Trade Journal included a small article on the device:

“The Fageol Gas Pipe Burner

“The Fageol Burner is constructed of iron and the manufacturers, The National Crude Oil Burner Co., 214 W. Locust street, Des Moines, Iowa, claim that this construction gives greater durability than any metal or combination of metals. The top and bottom plates are of stack iron and formed with a forming die, the edges being joined with a lap seam. Care is taken to have the grain of the top plate at right angles to the grain of the bottom plate to insure against warping. There are 115 flues in a 14-inch Fageol burner, and each flue has reduced end portions forming shoulders. Each end is riveted on, an absolutely tight joint being made.

“The lines are smaller in diameter than is usual, and it is claimed that this prevents back-firing and therefore the usual screen for this purpose is dispensed with. The flues are made of thicker material than the plates. They, therefore, hold the heat and warm the air in the air passages, thus creating a natural draft by the tendency of the warm air to rise. The thin plates serve to radiate the heat, and the whole construction is designed to equalize expansion, as well as to economize fuel and secure quick generation. As the thin plates do not retain an excessive amount of heat there is no over evaporation. One of these burners has been in use for 18 months past, and given satisfactory service, while others have been used for various periods of shorter duration with equally satisfactory results.”

Fageol’s oil burner was a vital component in numerous steam-powered automobiles, and the device was highlighted in the July 15, 1903 issue of The Automobile Review:

“An Oil Burner for Steamers

“The National Crude Oil Burner Company, of Des Moines, Iowa, have for three years been making oil burners for steam machines, and one of the original burners is still doing excellent service. The engraving shows this firm's latest design in oil burners. The burner is constructed entirely or iron, not steel or copper, or a combination of steel and copper. All experienced mechanics agree that iron can satisfactorily be worked up at a much higher temperature than steel or copper. The top and bottom plates are of stack iron, formed with a forming die, the edge of each plate meeting the edge of the opposite plate half way, the edges being joined with a lap seam or joint. This allows equal expansion and contraction. Care is taken that the grain of the iron in the top plate is placed at right angles with that in the bottom plate, thus insuring that there will be no warping.

“The top and bottom plates are held at equal space from each other by flues, there being 115 flues in 14-inch burner. These flues have reduced end portions forming a distinct shoulder on either end. This insures joints absolutely and permanently tight.

“The flues are made smaller in diameter than any other burner, thus doing away with any back draught, and obviating the necessity for a screen over the bottom plate. The screen being dispensed with a much better combustion is obtained.

“The flues are made of thicker material than the top or bottom plates, giving a construction with equal expansion and contraction, and all joints are riveted. The first burner put out has been continuously used for the past eighteen months, and is in as good condition as when first fitted on the machine. There is no sign of warping or loose flues; on the contrary, they are as tight as when first made.

“The flues on the burners are made heavy, the top and bottom plates being comparatively thin, thus radiating the heat. The flues being heavy hold the heat, warming the air passing through, and as hot air of course tends to rise, a strong natural draught is produced. The outside edges of the burner meeting half way, the burner case is shortened one-half inch, thus exposing the bottom of the burner directly to the air. For these reasons, and because of the small flues, the burner can be left in the wind, with low area and no screen without fear of back draught pulling the fire out. Further information will gladly be furnished by the makers upon request.”

The Des Moines city directories reveal the family patriarch, John J. Fageol, had a number of occupations during his time in the city. In 1894 he’s listed as a carpenter; 1895 the proprietor of a meat market at 1536 E. Grand av.; by 1897 he had taken in a partner, Owen McClay, and relocated to 1504 E. Grand Av., in the style of Fageol & McClay, Meats, 1504 E. Grand Av. and by 1899 had replaced him with N.S. Edwards, in the style of Fageol-Edwards Meats, 1504 E. Grand Av., a firm which continued into at least 1902.

The 1903 Des Moines directory lists John as foreman street sweeping dept., Board of Public Works, and the 1904 directory as President of Fageol-Aldrich Mfg. Co., 721 Walnut St. Des Moines, the official name of the family’s automobile distributorship which was financed in part by Des Moines druggist Frank S. Aldrich. The officers of Fageol-Aldrich were as follows; J.J. Fageol, pres.; W.B. Fageol, v-pres.; F.S. Aldrich, sec.; F.R. Fageol, treas.

The formation of the firm was mentioned in an April 1903 issue of the Des Moines News who reported that the Hopkins Bros., a well-established Des Moines sporting goods retailer who also carried bicycles and the some early automobiles which included Autocar, Buckboard, Oldsmobile and Winton, were in the process of selling their automobile business to a new firm composed of Fageol brothers.Although the announcement was a bit premature, the move was finalized within the year and reported in the April 21, 1904 issue of Motor Age:

“Hopkins Bros., Des Moines, Ia., have transferred their automobile and accessories business to the Fageol-Aldrich Co., at 409-411 Ninth street. The new concern will have the agency for the Oldsmobile, Autocar, and buckboard besides carrying a full line of appurtenances and supplies.”

The Fageol-Aldrich partnership dealership was short-lived as the August 17, 1904 issue of Horseless Age reported that Olds had purchased the firm’s Oldsmobile distributorship:

“The Fageol Aldrich Co. of Des Moines, la., is reported to have sold out a part of its business to the Olds Motor Works.”

The 1899-1902 Des Moines directories lists William B. Fageol’s employer as Henry Plumb, jeweler, staying with his brothers at the home of his parents at 1728 Des Moines. The 1903 directory list his occupation as machinist, and the 1904 directory states he had “removed to San Francisco.”

After a false start in Seattle, William B. Fageol migrated south to California where he got a job with the California Motor Company as a salesman (one source says mechanic), the 1905 San Francisco directory lists him at 129 Grove St., San Francisco. The California Motor Co., an early automobile distributor headed by Louis H. Bill, the former Manhattan branch manager of the H. A. Lozier Co., manufacturers of the Cleveland bicycle. Bill was the younger brother of John T. Bill, who was a partner with John W. Leavitt in the well-known San Francisco bicycle dealer Leavitt & Bill.

The October 17, 1901 issue of Bicycling World and Motocycle Review announced the formation of the California Motor Co:

“To Make Motocycles in California

“The California Motor Co. has been organized at San Francisco with Louis H. Bill, president; J. W. Leavitt, vice president, and J. F. Bill, secretary and treasurer. While automobiles are in view, the immediate purpose of the company is the manufacture of a motor bicycle invented by R. C. Marks, formerly of Toledo, Ohio, who with E. E. Stoddard and H. A. Burgess constitute the firm.”

Originally located at 2212 Folsom St., the California Motor Company eventually relocated next door to Leavitt & Bill at 305 Larkin St. (corner of McAllister), San Francisco where they sold Reading Standard motorcycles and Overland, Knox & Reo cars.

At much the same time Louis H. Bill became San Francisco’s first Rambler distributor, establishing the firm at 1331 Market St., San Francisco. Bill hired Fageol as a Rambler salesman and was soon convinced to hire Fageol’s younger brother Frank who was given a position as chauffeur/salesman with the firm.His status as chauffeur is confirmed by his 1905 driver’s license application which provides the address, 1331 Market St., as the address of his employer.

Frank R. Fageol’s employment history starts with a position as an apprentice/laborer at the Kratzer Carriage Co. of Des Moines. The heavy work did not agree with him and within the year he had taken a position as a sales associate with the W.C. Chase Co., the very same Des Moines bookseller and stationer his older brother Rollen also worked for. His first listing in the Des Moines directory appears in 1899 where his occupation is listed as machinist. His listing remained consistent until the 1904 edition which lists him as “treas., Fageol-Aldrich Mfg. Co.”

In the months preceding the San Francisco Earthquake (April 18, 1906), Louis H. Bill established a satellite Rambler agency, known as the ‘Rambler Garage’ in Oakland, putting the Fageol brothers in charge of the sales and service departments.

Within a few short months the brothers had proved themselves capable of handling the enterprise on their own, and in late 1906 acquired the Oakland Rambler distributorship from Bill, the real-estate transactions column of the October 13, 1906 issue of the Oakland Tribune announcing the sale of the property to Frank R. Fageol:

“F. R. Fageol, one-story two-room garage, southeast corner of Thirty- seventh street and Telegraph avenue; $3000.”

Frank and William Fageol were two of the many unsung heroes in the aftermath of the San Francisco Quake, and the December 23, 1906 issue of the Des Moines Daily News brought their story to the citizens of their old hometown:


“Probably no one in the recent Frisco disaster had no more exciting experience than a former Des Moines man, Mr. Frank Fageol, who for a number of years resided in this city and has many friends here. Mr. Fageol has been living in Oakland, Cal., for some time engaged in the automobile business. The story of his heroism in the awful earthquake has been related by a Des Moines woman who is intimately acquainted with the Fageol family and who has just returned from a western trip.

“As soon as the disaster occurred Mr. Fageol at once hastened to San Francisco in an automobile to ascertain the safety of his wife, who had gone there on a visit. No sooner had he reached the doomed city, however, than he was seized by a United States soldier, who ordered him to use his car in rescuing the injured. For seventy-two hours Mr. Fageol sent his big car whirling between tottering walls or climbing over masses of ruins. In this city he and his brother used up three automobiles. For three days and nights they did not get a wink of sleep. When, through sheer exhaustion, his eyes went shut he would be aroused by the soldier who, bayonet in hand, sat beside him and ever urged him to go closer to the tottering ruins.

“Scores of people were rescued by Mr. Fageol and the soldier. They came very near losing their lives in the work of rescue. At one time when they were running slowly up a street behind tottering walls, a big building came down with a crash behind them, effectually cutting off their return. A moment later and with a roar, a building in front of them came down piling a mass of brick and debris which filled the street. Thus they were hemmed in in a square of flaming ruins. Seeing there was no other way, Mr. Fageol put on full steam and sent the cur rushing at the mass of ruins in front of them. How they got over he says he does not know, but they did it and got away safely, although the car was badly crippled.

“Mr. Fageol saw many harrowing sights on this remarkable tour. People who were hopelessly pinned under burning timbers were given chloroform or put out of their misery with a merciful bullet from some soldier's rifle.”

The 1908 Oakland directory reveals that by that time the entire Fageol family had relocated to Oakland, and were all busy working at Frank’s Rambler dealership:

“F.R. Fageol, Automobiles & Garage, Agt. For Rambler Automobiles; Telegraph Av. sw cor. 37th
“Claud H. Fageol, mach. Rambler Garage, bd. 463 37th.
“Frank R. Fageol, pres. F.R. Fageol, r. r. 6425 Regent
“John J. Fageol, salsn F.R. Fageol; r. 463 37th.
“Hazel E. Fageol, b. 463 37th.
“Rolen B. Fageol, mach. F.R. Fageol, b. 720 39th
“William B. Fageol foreman, F.R. Fageol, b. 720 39th”

Frank R. Fageol’s Rambler Garage had become quite successful in a short period of time, and the May 3, 1908 issue of the Oakland Tribune reported on the sale of the business to Adams & Co.:

“The Rambler garage and salesrooms formerly owned and managed by Frank Fageol corner Telegraph and Thirty-seventh street, have been sold by Mr. Fageol and in future will be known as the Adams Company, his successors, who will maintain the high standard set by the former owner in his successful business career in the automobile business in Oakland and vicinity. Every type of the well-known Rambler will be kept by Adams & Co., and an expert force of salesmen and mechanics will be employed. Mr. Fageol is retiring from the automobile field.”

No further mention of Adams & Company was forthcoming and F.R. Fageol continued to be Oakland’s Rambler distributor for the next decade. Fageol’s success in the automobile business was celebrated with the construction of a new garage and salesroom located three blocks south of his previous location at the corner of Thirty-fourth St. and Telegraph Ave. The grand opening was announced in the October 15, 1911 issue of the Oakland Tribune:

“Rambler Agent In New Home; F.R. Fageol Now Housed in Magnificent and Spacious Quarters.

“The latent of the local dealers to seek new and better quarters is F.R. Fageol. On Monday night he held an informal opening, to which were invited many motor car owners of this city. Present was nearly every owner of a Rambler car in the county.

“His new garage and salesroom at Thirty-fourth and Telegraph avenue, is without doubt one of the most magnificent in this vicinity. Both are spacious and provide ample room—the one to show the new Rambler models and the other to house the numerous owners of these cars.

“In point of service and representing one car Fageol now is about the oldest dealer in the State of California, the Rambler having been distributed by him for the last six years.

“Frank has made a success of the motor car agency business by his method of treating with owners, any one of whim will vouch, for his liberality in taking care of his cars. Evidence of this is the number of owners, from year to year, seek him out when buying a new model.”

Success in the automotive field did not escape Rollie, the eldest Fageol brother. While working for his brother’s Rambler agency as a mechanic he had developed and patented a line of aftermarket automobile bumpers whose manufacture was subsequently licensed to the Hartford Suspension Co.

In the early days of the automobile, many low and medium-priced vehicles were not equipped with bumpers from the factory, leaving the aftermarket field wide open for third party manufacturers, who sold their wares through car dealers and auto parts stores. Two of the major players in the field at that time were the American Chain Co. of Bridgeport, Connecticut and the Hartford Suspension Co., of Jersey City, New Jersey.

Fageol had originally manufactured his own bumpers under the Rollie B. Fageol Co. moniker, arranging to have them distributed in Manhattan through a third party, the Concrete Bumper Co. The April 17, 1913 issue of Motor World highlighted the problems that developed with its proprietor, Edward R.C. Struthers:


“Jersey City Company Sues for Infringement of Fageol "Concrete Bumper Design — Struthers's House His Only Factory.

“Aside from utilizing the front room of his home as a factory, Edward R. C. Struthers, who is operating in his own house at 214 West 50th street, New York City, as the Concrete Bumper Co., seems likely to have other troubles, for this week Rollie Belle Fageol and the Hartford Suspension Co., of Jersey City. N. J., filed suit against him in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York, charging infringement of a bumper design patent and also alleging unfair competition. Meanwhile, Struthers is turning out his bumpers in the room which in most homes is considered the parlor.

“Complications seem likely to enter into the case in that the design patent, No. 43,740, which it is claimed is infringed, was granted to Fageol only on March 25 last, less than a month prior to the filing of the suit, whereas the manufacture of the bumpers by both parties was in progress sometime prior even to the date of filing the application, December 18, 1912.

“According to the history of the bumper, which is incorporated in the bill of complaint, the device was conceived by Fageol, who originally resided in Alameda. Cal., and who began to manufacture it under the style Rollie B. Fageol Co. It consists of a hollow metal bumper rod filled with concrete and attached to the car through the medium of a leaf-spring arm, or at least this is the form in which the design specified has been placed on the market by both parties in the action.

“Fageol states that when he began to make bumpers he entered into an agreement with Struthers, January 31, 1912, whereby the latter was to purchase the product, a certain quantity being specified in the contract, but Fageol alleges that Struthers failed to keep his part of the agreement and thereby caused damage to Fageol, who further alleges that to protect himself, the agreement having been broken by Struthers, he sold the rights under the patent to the Hartford Suspension Co. The latter, he avers, since has created a demand for the device and has made valuable the trade name of 'The Reinforced Concrete Automobile Bumper.'

“Struthers is charged with unfair competition in imitating the design of the bumper, and it is claimed that when "concrete bumper" is mentioned the car owning public immediately thinks of the Hartford product, whereby Struthers is charged with getting the benefit of the Hartford company's pioneering in this line. The complainants ask for an injunction, damages, an accounting of profits, and that whatever stock Struthers has on hand be destroyed.”

Rollie remained interested in the designs and engineering of automobile bumpers for the rest of his career, licensing many of his patented bumper designs to the nation’s leading bumper manufacturers.

His next project was the design of people movers for the planned Panama-Pacific International Exposition which was to be held in San Francisco during 1915. The Fair celebrated the completion of the Panama Canal and helped showcase the city’s amazing recovery from the devastating 1906 Earthquake. The exposition grounds encompassed 635 acres located along San Francisco Bay between Fort Mason and the Presidio extending to Chestnut St., in what is today’s Marina District.

J.H. Fort writes in The Fageol Success:

"When the Panama-Pacific Exposition was being planned, the problem of transportation within the grounds confronted the directors. Many proposals were submitted and considered, but none seemed as practical as that of R. B. Fageol and F. R. Fageol. The latter, over a period of fifteen years, had been automotive inventor, mechanic, and salesman.

"The Fageols proposed to solve the problem by building a small tractor, using the motor of a popular automobile, to draw the passenger trailers. The idea amused and appealed to the directors; the Fageols were awarded their transportation concessions"

Edward P. Brinegar, president of the Pioneer Automobile Co., one of the most influential early automobile dealers on the coast (Chalmers, Oldsmobile, Thomas, and Winton, etc.), provided Rollie with the working capital to get the project rolling, his brother Frank R. Fageol provided the workshops for their construction, and Brinegar provided an office for the firm adjacent to the Pioneer showrooms at 702 Market St., San Francisco.

The ‘Recent Incorporations’ column of the Horseless Age announced the formation of the firm in its November 11, 1914 issue:

“Fageol Auto Train Inc., San Francisco, Cal.; Capital stock $100,000; Incorporators: F.R. Fageol, R.B. Fageol, E.P. Brinegar, A.T. O’Connell.”

In a bizarre move, Brinegar, Fageol Auto Train’s president, insisted that the firm’s products be marketed as the ‘Fadgl’ Auto Train, fearing that prospective customers would have great difficulty pronouncing the actual surname of its inventor. As he was providing the cash, the Fageol brothers ceded to his request and the name stuck.

The Ford Model T was selected as the motive power unit for the auto train. The frame of the Ford tractors were modified with a beefed-up frame and a Rollie B. Fageol-designed reduction gear-set that limit its speed while providing the greatest amount of torque from the seemingly overtaxed 4-cylinder Ford engine. A clever inter-steering device made up of diagonal steering arms controlled the trailer’s steering and an automatic brake was installed the brought the vehicle to a controlled stop whenever the accelerator was lifted.

The four wheels of the double-axled trailer coaches were shrouded to protect the clothes and feet of its passengers. Both units of the tractor-trailers were constructed in a facility leased by Frank R. Fageol and located at Thirty-eighth St. and San Pablo Ave. (38th St. is now known as W. MacArthur Blvd.) during the winter and early spring of 1915.

The May 10, 1915 issue of the Automobile Journal provided a detailed description of the Fadgl ‘motor train’:


“Seventeen Ford motor engines are used in the transportation system established to haul visitors about the exposition grounds in San Francisco. They pull 17 small motor trains which run from Machinery hall to the Massachusetts building and back, a distance of three miles.

“These trains were designed and built by R. B. Fageol of Oakland. Power is supplied by small tractors, which have 36-inch tread and a wheelbase in proportion. Each one carries a Ford motor. The steering wheel is set like the usual automobile steering post, and a single seat for the driver is provided on the tractor. An inter-steering arrangement has been perfected so that by the use of a ball and socket draw bar each car steers the one that immediately follows. Brake shoes work against the surface of the pavement instead of against a drum on the cars themselves. The trains are operated with perfect safety among the largest crowds that visit the exposition.

“Around the grounds the trains run at an average speed of 10 miles per hour, although the tractors running empty are said to be able to make 20 miles an hour. The cars, two of which make a train, are like long settees placed back to back with a passage way between in which the conductor operates. The wheels have five by 25 solid tires and are completely hidden.

“The cars are very low, so that it is only a short step off the ground to a seat. This feature does much to make the conveyance popular.

“Each of the trains is travelling about 100 miles per day, at a cost of five cents for fuel, wages for the crew, and mechanical upkeep and depreciation. The fare charged is 10 cents. Twenty passengers per train is a good load, but on some days, when the crowds have been especially large, as many as 50 have been carried. Sixty-five men are employed in operating the system.”

The most detailed account of the train’s engineering appeared in the October 21, 1915 issue of Engineering News:

“A more novel means of transportation is that afforded by trackless trains operated on the driveways, each consisting of an automobile and trail cars. This system was invented by R. B. Fageol, of Oakland, Calif., and is operated by the Fadgl Auto Train Co., of San Francisco.

“The automobile, or tractor, is of special design, weighing 6,000 lb. and having 20-in. wheels with solid rubber tires. It carries four passengers. The tractor hauls three trailers, each weighing 1,500 lb. and carrying 20 passengers. These cars have 24-in. wheels and 12-ft. wheelbase. They have side seats back to back, with a passage between for the use of the conductor. At the ends the seats are raised to clear the wheels. The couplings are of special design, causing the trailers to track with the automobile. A shoe brake is operated in connection with the couplings, being lowered to contact with the ground when the couplings are slackened by reduction of speed. The speed limit is 12 mi. per hr.”

The June 1915 issue of The American Chauffeur contained a more detailed account that was originally published in the Commercial Car Journal:

“Automobile Trains At Exposition

“Viewed from outside the entrance gates a popular vote would undoubtedly select the Tower of Jewels as the chief attraction of the Panama-Pacific International Exposition. Inside the accurately clicking turnstiles there is nothing which so quickly catches and holds the eye as the spic and span white auto trains that are quickly skimming about the beautiful jewel City, conveying thousands of visitors over the extensive grounds, affording the former a complete and comprehensive view of the great fair in its exterior aspect which they could not otherwise obtain.

“The Fadgl Auto Train is the name under which this wheeled fleet operates. Its popularity cannot be questioned, for every train is loaded to capacity. It is a midget train by comparison, but a big thing from the standpoint of its commercial success.

“A Californian, R. B. Fadgl, invented it. He is a well-known Oakland automobile dealer. It was while in Philadelphia on a business trip three years ago that the idea had its birth.

“Being of an inventive and practical turn of mind, Fadgl set about putting into concrete form something to meet this need. The motive power was simple enough, but a passenger coach combining comfort and practicability, a mechanical complement to the engine, gave Fadgl a pretty problem.

“Followed a few weeks of the transformation of theories to blueprints and blueprints to models, until at last Fadgl produced a four-wheeled trailer, incorporated in which was a clever inter-steering device made up of diagonal steering arms.

“In detail each train consists of a special miniature Auto Tractor of 36-inch tread, with 25x5inch solid tires, and two specially designed trailers or cars resembling a double settee, with the conductor’s aisle in the center.

“The braking system consists of a shoe connected midway in the draw-bar, which is forced downward when the motion of the train is slackened. the action being automatic and in unison with the tractor, making it absolutely safe in crowds. The system is an entirely new invention, which successfully solves a hitherto perplexing problem.

“The whole car is but one step off the ground, running on four invisible wheels, all controlled by a draw—bar connection to the tractor in such a way that the two cars follow in exactly the same tracks as the tractor when rounding a turn in the road. This feature eliminates any cutting off on turns or crowding of people off the road. Each train seats forty people comfortably, and the cars are most convenient in getting on or off.

“The twenty Fadgl auto trains are operated in a manner which is similar to that of a street car system. A similar chart is used and similar schedule system. This similarity of operation is carried out in all its details.”

Specifics of the auto train’s route, capacity and income were detailed in the July 10, 1915 issue of the Electric Railway Journal:

“Transportation by Fadgl Auto Train at San Francisco Exposition

“The Fadgl Auto Train Inc., has been carrying approximately one fourth of all Panama-Pacific Exposition visitors in eighteen, three car trains of sixty-six seating capacity, or 105 total capacity per train. The longest run one way is 1 1/2 miles and the shortest is 3/8 mile. The initial fare is either 5 or 10 cents, according to the character of the run. Zone fare additions of 5 cents each are charged when passengers make partial or complete circuits. On Feb. 20, the opening day, fifteen two-car trains and one one-car train carried $3,246.95 of business. Up to June 1, about 1,250,000 passengers were carried, but it is expected that heavy summer business will bring the total for the year in excess of 4,000,000. The number of fares during four days of June averaged 15,150 a day. All fare collections during this period were handled with Rooke registers.”

Between February 20, 1915, when the gates opened and December 4, when the Exposition closed, a fair number of the fair’s 18 million visitors rode on the popular Fadgl Auto trains, which took in a reported $307,000 in nickels and dimes. When the Exposition ended a number of the trains were sold to a Chicago-based firm that operated the concessions at that City’s Lincoln Park.

The total number of trains constructed is believed to have been 18 although contemporary reports list a total of 16, 17 and 20, one source mentioned a total of 30. Further exploitation of the trains was envisioned and on February 21, 1916 Brinegar and R.B. Fageol organized a second firm, Fadgl Flexible Systems Inc., in Carson City, Nevada. The firm was capitalized at $100,000 and an office established in San Francisco’s Hobart Building at 582 Market St. The 1917 San Francisco Directory listed both firms as follows:

“Fadgl Auto Train (Inc.), 702 Market St.; Fadgl Flexible System (Inc.), Hobart Bldg.”

An article in the April 13, 1916 issue of the Oakland Tribune reveals that Rollie had applied the principle of the auto train to an amusement park attraction:

“Animal Train Is New Fageol Idea

“R.B. Fageol of this city, again is the inventor of a new idea in transportation. Again he is bidding for fame and again he seems in line for a new fortune.

“His latent invention is the outgrowth of the original Fageol Auto Trains of the Exposition.

“The new Idea is an animal train, a train on which active wooden animals are mounted - a progressive merry-go-round.

“It is designed both as an amusement for the kiddies, and as a practical means of transportation. Propelled as it is, by a miniature 25-horse power tractor, it is capable of a fair speed and the trains can be made long enough to carry more than 100 persons.

“The tests are to be made at Idora Park in a few days. Should the train prove popular it will be an all-summer featured at Idora.”

Further developments were not limited to kiddie rides as the August 12, 1916 issue of Automobile Topics states that Fadgl Flexible Systems had introduced a gasoline-powered six-wheeled omnibus-trailer based on the Fadgl auto trains. The prototype was constructed at the shops of San Francisco’s Pacific Electric Co., for use as a demonstrator by the affiliated Fresno Traction Co. of Fresno, Calif.:

“Flexible Fadgl For Fresno Fares

“Six-wheeled Bus Placed in Service After 250-Mile Run Overland—Has Four-wheel Steer and Can Run Backward in Circles.

“There are a great many transportation engineers who believe the automobile is going to play a dominant part in the street transportation of the future—that is, the transportation that is now mostly taken care of by street cars running on tracks. The increase of traffic in large centers, the great improvements that have been made in mobile vehicle units and the huge expense entailed by the construction, operation and maintenance of permanent way—to say nothing of its inconvenience in the streets— all point toward the increasing use of the automobile as the ultimate successor of the trolley car. Where motor bus lines are operated under proper conditions they have rendered service such as to cause a general opening of eyes. It has been shown that the traveling public is more than willing to ride in the big automobiles—that it is even willing, sometimes, to pay double for the privilege. It has also been shown, however, that it is not necessary to ask the public to pay double in order to make a well-planned, well-managed motor bus line pay dividends.

“On the Pacific Coast—to say nothing of other sections of the country—investors are by no means eagerly grasping opportunities to put capital into street railway enterprises, largely because of the increase of expense due to paving requirements and to higher standards demanded in plant and permanent way, to the piling up of taxation and to the reduction of earnings due to the increasing number of automobile units in service. For all these and several other reasons interest in developments that promise to substitute automobiles for street cars running on tracks are accorded genuine interest.

“In Fresno, Cal., tests have been made of a six-wheeled type of bus that, while comparatively new, has been in existence for some time; in fact, at the Panama-Pacific exposition there were in service cars built by the inventor, R. B. Fageol. The Fresno demonstrations were for a special purpose —to demonstrate to traction men just what may be expected of a car built especially for street traction service. The car was built in the shops of the Pacific Electric Co. and has been put into the service of the Fresno Traction Co. as an extension of the Arlington Heights street car line.

“The system under which the car is built is known as the Fadgl flexible system, and is controlled by the Fadgl Flexible System, Inc., San Francisco. The bus is a six wheeler, and in its underlying principle is similar to the semi-trailer system used for heavy haulage. That is to say, the load is carried chiefly on a two-wheeled trailer, the front end of which rests on the rear end of a four-wheeled tractor. The resemblance ends there, however, for the distinctive feature of the Fadgl car is that the rear wheels are on steering knuckles, the same as the front wheels, and by means of an interconnection the rear wheels are positively steered. This makes it as easy to handle the car when running backward as a four-wheeler; during the test the car was run in circles backward, with no difficulty.

“The car was driven from San Francisco, where it was built, to Fresno, over the road, a distance of 250 miles over the Tehachapi Mountains and the Mojave Desert. The trip was made in 10 1/4 hours, the car making a smooth and comfortable trip, notwithstanding the rough character of much of the road surface. The gasoline consumption was a little better than 18 miles to the gallon. The easy riding qualities of the machine are ascribed largely to the fact that the rear section, carrying the passengers, is on a three-point suspension, consisting of the two rear wheels and the flexible body joint.

“Designs have been made for cars of two sizes, to carry 12 and 20 passengers respectively. The one in service in Fresno is of the smaller size. While the principles involved will permit the construction of buses of practically any size or capacity, the 20-passenger type is about as large as can conveniently be handled by one man, and for this reason it is the largest that will be built for the present. The entrance is near the front where the driver can take care of fare collections.

“The entire power plant and transmission mechanism are in the forward section which is, in fact, simply of conventional automobile construction with the necessary hauling and steering connections attached at the rear. Therefore the disablement of one section does not mean the disablement of the whole bus. In case of mechanical trouble the passenger-carrying section can be uncoupled and mounted on another tractor; and in case of trouble with the rear section, the tractor can be placed under another rear section. As the tractor carries only a light load, however—the rear wheels carry nearly all the passenger weight—it is expected that the total repairs will be a smaller item than in the case of a four-wheeled bus.

“The Fadgl flexible bus, which has been placed in service as an extension of a Fresno, Cal., street car line, has six wheels, four of which are on knuckles and are connected with the steering gear. Twelve passengers are carried in the rear section, which is attached to the front section by a single flexible joint. The driver is all the crew required. A larger model carries 20 passengers.”

The October 1, 1916 issue of The Electrical News also covered the vehicle:

“Motor Bus as Auxiliary to Street Railway

“A question which is of great interest to many municipalities is the extent to which some form of motor-bus can be used to supplement the existing street car service; in outlying districts, for instance, which it is desired to connect with the existing lines, but where it is not practicable to build expensive extensions under present conditions. A number of different designs have been developed and, from time to time, described and illustrated in the Electrical News. An innovation in motor-bus construction, however, is contained in the design illustrated herewith. It is called the “Fadgl Flexible Car.” and was developed by the Fadgl Flexible System, Inc., of San Francisco. Cal.

“The passenger body is supported on a ball and socket joint located forward of the rear axle of the engine member, thus combining the two parts in a six-wheeled, flexible coach.

“An automatic steering lever connects the middle or driving axle with the hindmost axle, the latter having the same connections between wheel and axle as the ordinary automobile front axle. In this way the hindmost wheels are made to track those ahead, and thus the limiting turning radius for the entire coach is no greater than that of the four wheels of the engine member.

“A feature claimed for this type of construction is that because the forward end of the passenger section is supported at one point, the rocking common to the ordinary four-wheeled car is absent. By having the motor on a separate chassis the passengers do not feel its vibration, and the connection is made convenient for speedy uncoupling, so that in the event of any breakdown on the engine member the rear section can be jacked up and another engine member coupled on in a few minutes. Spanning the flexible joint between the engine member and the passenger section are curtains, which operate on spring rollers. These curtains are to be painted with route signs.

“One man operates the machine, the seating arrangements being such that passengers pay their fares on leaving. The first two cars built have a seating capacity of twelve in the rear section and one with the driver These cars were built according to plans which have been worked out in detail for either twelve or twenty passenger bodies Any light automobile can be adapted as a motor The first two units and the one shown herewith were equipped with Chevrolet motors developing about 30 h.p., and it is stated they are adapted to similar light engines such as the Ford, Maxwell etc. In a cross country test one of these cars travelled 246 miles in ten hours and thirty minutes arriving in excellent condition and ready for immediate service It is believed that this coach combines the good points of the jitney such as low operating cost, curb loading, quick get away, and comfort of riding, with many of the good points of the trolley such as greater capacity, responsible management, etc. The motive power of the flexible car can be made either gasoline or electricity in fact may be adapted to use the trolley where such exists and to leave the trolley and run on its own power in outlying districts.”

The September 29, 1917 issue of the Electric Railway Journal announced that the Pacific Electric Railway was proceeding with a large-scale test of the Fadgl System omnibuses:

“Flexible Buses in Larger Sizes

“The Pacific Electric Railway has under construction additional buses of the Fadgl flexible type which will be put into auxiliary service at an early date. The first of these cars to be put in service by the company is still in use at Fresno, Cal. They were described on page 314 of the Electric Railway Journal for Aug. 10, 1916.

“The new buses will have a seating capacity of thirty passengers and there are also improvements in the design of the bus body. A more powerful motor has been used in the larger cars and by employing heavier construction throughout it is expected that the life of the bus will be materially increased. The new type is shown in the accompanying illustration.”

In November of 1916 Rollie B. Fageol was forced to file another suit to protect his patents, the November 18, 1916 issue of Automobile Topics reporting:

“Bumpers Fail to Fend Litigation

“Three Patent Suits on Bumpers Bob Up —Fageol, Maguth, Hartford, Supply Depot, Lyon Non-Skid Metal Stamping and Gemco in Collision.

“Bumpers, which are steadily growing in popularity as their protective virtues are realized by motorists, this week burst into the legal limelight through three suits, filed in the United States District Court for the

“Southern District of New York. By the suits it is revealed that Rollie B. Fageol, Michael J. Maguth and E. V. Hartford are the owners of patents that they think are infringed by the Automobile Owners Supply Depot, New York City, while the Lyon Non-Skid Co., Philadelphia, Pa., and the Metal Stamping Co., New York City, have a patent that they think E.V. Hartford is infringing. Who has what, the Court will now have to decide.

“The first suit is that of Rollie B. Fageol and E.V. Hartford, Inc., of California and Jersey City, N. J., respectively, against the Automobile Owners Supply Depot, New York City. It states that Fageol secured patent No. 1,202,690 on a bumper, and gave Hartford an exclusive license. Violation is charged in the sale of bumpers made by the Gemco Mfg. Co., Milwaukee, Wis., thereby brought in as a seventh party in the tangle. The second suit brings the same complaint, save that Michael I. Maguth is the inventor who secured patent No. 1,194,405 and licensed Hartford to use it.

“The third suit is that of the Lyon Non-Skid Co. and Metal Stamping Co. against E.V. Hartford. In this, the Lyon company is the owner of the patent, No. 1,198,246, and gave the Metal Stamping Co. a license.”

Rollie’s brother, Frank continued to operate his very successful Oakland automobile distributorship which now encompassed Garford trucks and the entire Jeffrey line, which now included the Jeffrey Quad, a heavy-duty all-wheel drive workhorse that had become popular with California miners.

In 1916 Frank R. Fageol made a calculated move to get into the lucrative heavy truck manufacturing business, which up until that time had been dominated by firms located in East. His success with the distribution of Garford and Jeffrey trucks convinced him there was an increasing demand for the vehicles in the Pacific Northwest. His only competition would be from Moreland, which was located in Los Angeles, a two day’s journey from his home base of Alameda County, and almost a week from Seattle, Washington (San Francisco’s Kleiber Motor Truck Co. didn’t start manufacturing trucks until after the end of the First World War).

Frank’s older brother William joined him in making plans for the proposed auto truck which would be offered in sizes ranging from 2 ½ to 6 tons capacity. John J. Fageol, the family patriarch, retired and his youngest son, Claud H. Fageol, found employment with another Oakland dealer, George Peacock - the April 16, 1916 issue of the Oakland Tribune reporting:

“Dailey and Fageol Join Chandler Staff

“Two of the most important of recent changes in the personnel of auto row was announced this week by George Peacock of the Peacock Auto Company of this city, who announces the acquisition to his Chandler car staff of experts C. H. Fageol and Frank H. Dailey.

“Both Fageol and Dailey are well known here in motoring circles, Fageol, who is to devote all of his time to the selling of Chandler Six cars here was for years identified with his brother, Frank R. Fageol, in the Jeffery car business.

“Dailey was formerly the Reo car agent in Oakland and later the Pacific Coast distributor for the Premier line of the motor cars with headquarters In Oakland. He also handled the Oakland car line here for a season. Dailey is to handle Chandler cars in the outside territory for the Peacock Auto Company.

“Both men are experienced in the automobile business and their choice of the Chandler car in carrying out their work is a matter of much gratification to the local Chandler people.”

Of greater significance to the truck manufacturing project were events taking place in Kenosha., Wisconsin, the July 23, 1916 issue of the Oakland Tribune announcing:

“Nash Takes Control of the Jeffery Factory

“A bigger, greater Jeffrey organization is seen by automobile world prophets as a result of yesterday's sale of the mammoth Kenosha manufacturing plant.

“Foremost among the purchasers of the Thomas B. Jeffrey Company is Charles W. Nash, of Flint, Mich., a man with a nation-wide reputation for his constructive conservatism in the motor car Industry. Nash takes active charge of the management of the big plant on August 1, at which time his connection with the General Motors Company will be completely severed.

“Announcement of the sale of the company which is capitalized at $13,000,000, came as a surprise to the automobile world. Exact figures giving the price for the entire stock were not made public.”

Nash’s takeover of Jeffery was significant as Frank R. Fageol’s longtime friend and former employer Louis H. Bill was now out of a job as Charles W. Nash wished to install his own men at the Jeffrey Works.

During the summer Bill and Fageol put together a business plan which included the construction of a showpiece that would bring attention to the firm and by association its line of heavy-duty trucks, both of which were totally unknown outside of metropolitan San Francisco. The bait, as it were, would be ‘the World’s Most Expensive Car’ which could only be powered by ‘the World’s Largest Engine’, the very same 6-cylinder Hall-Scott aero engine that would power the firm’s trucks. The 824.67-cu. in. overhead-valve straight-six Hall-Scott was guaranteed to produce 125+hp at 1,300 r.p.m.

The car and the truck, whose conventional chassis were designed by Detroit-based powertrain engineer Cornelius T. Meyers, would be marketed as the Fageol. Both would feature a distinctive row of top-mounted jagged ventilators that ran from the back of the radiator to the cowl – making it easy to identify any Fageol product from a distance. Frank R. Fageol patented the design and they remained a distinctive and endearing feature of the firm’s vehicles into the mid-1930s.

The rest of the Fageol Motors story is covered on the Fageol Motors page.

Although he is not recorded as being involved in the Fageol Motors Co., Rollie B. Fageol’s bumper business must have been doing well as March 11, 1917 issue of the Oakland Tribune announced that he was constructing a new $15,000 home:

“New Home In Rockridge.

“R.B. Fageol, one of the Fageol brothers of automobile fame who made both name and fortune in operating the little automobile trains at the San Francisco Exposition, has had plans completed for a $15,000 residence on Alpine terrace in Rockridge Park. The new home will be of old English type, with twelve, rooms and a ball room in the attic. It will be one of the finest residences in this exclusive residence district, and work will be commenced at once. The plans were prepared by J. Hudson Thomas of Berkeley.”

Although Rollie B. Fageol was no longer involved in his brother’s business activities he remained hard at work developing heavy-duty suspensions and drivetrains for Fadgl Flexible Systems and various third parties, one of which was the Pacific Electric Railway, the September 29, 1917 issue of the Electric Railway Journal reporting:

“Flexible Buses in Larger Sizes

“The Pacific Electric Railway has under construction additional buses of the Fadgl flexible type which will be put into auxiliary service at an early date. The first of these cars to be put in service by the company is still in use at Fresno, Cal. They were described on page 314 of the Electric Railway Journal for Aug. 10, 1916.

“The new buses will have a seating capacity of thirty passengers and there are also improvements in the design of the bus body. A more powerful motor has been used in the larger cars and by employing heavier construction throughout it is expected that the life of the bus will be materially increased. The new type is shown in the accompanying illustration.”

Fadgl Flexible Systems also developed an ore train that based upon the auto trains Fageol had developed for use at the Panama-Pacific International Exposition. The August 26, 1917 issue of the Oakland Tribune announced the formation of a new firm that hoped to exploit the new ore trains to regional mining operators:

“Fadgl Ore Cars

“San Francisco, Aug. 20 – The Mines Transportation Company is the name of a new $200,000 concern, fathered by Rollie Fageol and Harry F. Davis of Oakland, and George W. Murphy of San Francisco, which filed articles of incorporation here today. The concern proposes to use the Fadgl car which was operated for passenger transportation at the Panama-Pacific Exposition to carry ore from mines to railroads doing away with the necessity of laying tracks. It is claimed that the Fageol machine is particularly adapted to this purpose.”

There were a number of firms named ‘Mines Transportation Co.’ active in the west, and the San Francisco firm appeared just as the Mines Transportation Co. of Murray, Utah, failed. The latter firm was a known user of Fadgl Flexible Systems ore trains and their pending bankruptcy was covered in the August 30, 1916 issue of the Deseret News:

“The Mines Transportation Company was managed by its president, James Austin, and its vice-president, Abe Mecking, both active spirits in the concern and both signing its checks. It purchased tractor engines and cars for hauling of the ores of the Cardiff Mining Company down Big Cottonwood canyon, but after a short trial found that the grades were too steep, and that the brakes were not powerful enough to hold the cars back. The contract was therefore thrown up and the California company which had supplied the engines and cars took them back and re-shipped them to California as they had only been partly paid for.”

Cardiff Mining Company’s spokesman, Ezra Thompson, had the following to say in regards to the tractor trains:

“‘The tractor trains were a failure’, Mr. Thompson said. ‘The grade proved too great for them, and they could not be operated successfully despite guarantees which were made to the contrary.’”

Although the ore train concept was sound, the product needed improvement and Rollie B. Fageol commenced to beef up the drivetrain and soon had a redesigned vehicle that found favor with a San Francisco millionaire named Commander Emory Winship.

In 1918 Winship, who owned several Magnesite mines in and around Livermore, California, hired Rollie B. Fageol to head a team of engineers to design trucks to replace the mule trains that were currently hauling ore out of his mines. Well acquainted with the problems associated with such an operation, Fageol created a number of vehicles for Winship between 1918-1920 that experimented with various combinations of axles and drivetrains.

In partnership with a San Francisco-based father & son team - Samuel A. & Horace W. Moss - Rollie B. Fageol formed the Fageol-Moss Shock Absorber Co. late in the year.Organized with a capital stock of $150,000 in order to manufacture shock absorbers, Fageol-Moss’ factory was located at 3512 Piedmont Ave., Oakland, Calif. Samuel A. Moss is better known today as the developer of the Moss Supercharger, a Rateau-type of turbo compressor developed for the Liberty aero engine during his tenure as chief of turbine research at the General Electric Co. Exactly what products were developed by Fageol-Moss is unknown and the firm disappeared by the time the 1923 Oakland directory was published.

The November 20, 1921 issue of the Oakland Tribune marked the official unveiling of Rollie B. Fageol’s most famous creation, the eight-wheeled motor bus:

“Car Builder Is Pioneer In Bus Designs

“Rollie Fageol, builder of the Fadgl trains which served as the transportation system within the exposition grounds during 1915, has designed and completed for the American Highway Transportation Company of San Francisco an eight-wheeled, twenty-passenger motor bus which gives excellent promise of revolutionizing the present type of motor buses.

“Twenty-five hundred miles of service has thus far brought to light only a few minor changes in construction and the Fadgl bus will still work its way through the experimental stage by being subjected to 27,500 additional more miles in order to reveal any hidden bugs.

“Increased riding safety and greater riding comfort are the two main points advanced by Fageol as the basic reasons for future success his eight-wheeled motor bus will experience. Increased safety is possible because skidding has been eliminated and little danger of accident is likely from tire trouble even when the bus is traveling at a high rate of speed.

“Greater riding comfort comes from the use of the four extra wheels and because of the smaller tires used.

“Fageol declares that the eight-wheeled idea is an evolution of the six-wheel type, which, in turn, he says, was an evolution of the successful Fadgl motor train.

“On the first experimental run, from Oakland to Los Angeles, via the coast route, the Fadgl bus made the run of 455 miles in fifteen hours on a gasoline performance which showed ten miles to gallon as an average.

“The four front wheels steer in tandem and Fageol states that this system provides a safer and easier control of the car.

“In the present job a Continental motor is used, but on the next and subsequent buses a special Hall-Scott motor will constitute the power plant. The wheel base is sixteen feet in length and the length over all is twenty-six feet. The bus turns on a twenty-six foot radius. The present experimental bus weighs 8,000 pounds and this weight will be considerably reduced on the next job that is turned out.

“From the 32 x 4 1/2 tires Fageol uses he expects from 25,000 to 30,000 miles of service and if this record is obtained passenger bus operators will get a somewhat rude shock, inasmuch as 10,000 miles is considered a fine showing on the existing large sized tires equipped on present day four-wheeled types.

“Fageol is trying the eight-wheeler out today on the experimental track at Pittsburg in order to find out just what road shocks it produces and to what extent, if any, it affects the longevity of concrete roads. Because the road impact is lighter than four-wheel type produces, Fageol believes his new passenger-carrying vehicle will show up favorably on the accurate recording instruments that are in use on the Pittsburg course.

“An equalized load, almost perfectly balanced, is obtained under any driving conditions.”

The eight-wheeled truck/bus chassis was not a new design, the July 1917 issue of Popular Science Monthly included pictures and schematics of a ‘Ten-Ton Motor-Truck on Eight Wheels’.

The January 1922 issue of The Timberman included an article on another new Rollie B. Fageol design, a six-wheel-drive road train constructed for Col. Emory Winship,a San Francisco-based mine owner:

“Six-Wheel Drive Road Train

“System of Transportation Said To Rival Three Separate Trucks and Drivers

“By distributing the load over a number of trailers, and by developing a power unit with traction on all six of its wheels, Emery Winship of San Francisco, has evolved a system of motor haulage calculated to give greater efficiency than three separate trucks and three individual drivers.

“Train With Six-Wheel Drive Unit

“This road train consists of a 10-ton truck with 6-wheel drive and two 5-ton trailers of special design. There are four wheels and two axles in the rear of the power unit over which the load is carried. By putting the 10-ton load over the four wheels in the rear instead of over two as in the 4-wheel trucks it doubles the bearing surface of the train and only brings half the pressure on any one point of pavement. This practice will greatly increase the life of roads and pavements. The 6-wheel drive eliminates the slippage and gives a traction of 100 per cent.

“The fact that one man can drive the train without assistance and more economically than three drivers for three trucks reduces the gas consumption and overhead.

“The power unit steers on the two front and two rear wheels. All steering wheels intersteer so that when the front wheels are turned the rear wheels automatically turn in the opposite direction so that the train is practically on a pivot, giving a very short turning radius. All four wheels of the two trailers intersteer, and follow in the exact path of the wheels of the power unit, consequently one driver can drive the train around a sharp corner without looking around to see if the trailers are striking anything.

“The power unit is equipped with a hydraulic steering gear which automatically throws into hand gear should anything happen to the hydraulic steering device. This enables the train to be steered with a minimum of effort on the part of the driver.

“Each wheel of the motor truck and trailers have their own brake which is a combination of pneumatic and hydraulic device, and is so arranged that should one or more of the trailers get loose the brakes are automatically applied. There is also a device that automatically puts the proper amount of brake on the trailers when they are crowding the power unit in going down grade.

“Various devices are installed on the trailers which absolutely eliminate any wobble in the trailers, thereby eliminating the menace to other traffic. The road train is 62 feet in length and can be turned in a circle 60 feet in diameter.

“For a better understanding of some of the features of the road train, a series of photographs is reproduced.

“No. 1 shows the method of connecting the front trailer to the power unit. It also shows the hose for controlling the brakes on the trailers. No. 2 shows how the power unit can run over obstructions. This block is 12 inches high, and the truck run up onto the top and back again without any trouble whatever. The front wheels were held in this position for several minutes, while the photo was being taken. This photo also shows the cylinder and mechanism of the hydraulic steering device.

“Four-Ball Universal Joints.

“No. 3 at the arrow at A. shows one of the four-ball universal joints on the drive shaft. These universal joints are covered to retain grease. The universal joint consists of a driving fork, double slotted ball and driven fork. Two forks are arranged to accommodate the gear in one case and the driving member of the wheel in the other. The slotted ball acts as transmitter of power between the two fork members. This is so arranged as to permit the front wheels to turn at an angle of 30 degrees.

“The arrow at B, in photo No. 3, shows the shaft for steering the two rear wheels. The arrow shows two universal joints in the shaft which permits the two rear wheels to turn to an angle of 14 degrees. in the opposite direction from the front wheels, when turning corners. Tires used on the equipment are 36 x 7 inches.

“The Rogers-Unit Drive Corporation, Sunnyvale, Cal., is the builder of the 6-wheel type of truck and trailer attachment.”

The eight-wheeled bus pictured and described in the November 20, 1921 issue of the Oakland Tribune was featured in the February 1922 issue of Bus Transportation:

“Eight Wheels Improve Riding Qualities

“An eight-wheel bus, which is a radical departure in both design and construction has just made its appearance in California. Instead of a single axle at both front and rear, the vehicle has double axle construction so that virtually it has two trucks. The front four wheels steer in unison, while the drive to the four rear wheels is through two sets of worm and gear axles. The rear worm is driven from the front through a shaft with universals at both ends. The two axles making one unit are placed at centers of about 3 ft.

“Double semi elliptic springs on each side between each pair of axles support the chassis frame. This suspension allows the ascension or depression of any one or any combination of wheels, because each set of wheels behaves somewhat similarly to a single car of short wheelbase and any distortion or rocking motion of that unit is not imparted to the chassis frame. It is claimed that this sort of design which is made possible by the use of eight wheels, has produced a machine with riding qualities which surpass those of any four-wheel vehicle. The car is driven by a special 60 hp. four-cylinder motor designed by Mr. Hall, the designer of the Hall-Scott airplane engine. The bore and stroke of the cylinders are 4 1/2 x 5 1/2 in. With this power a maximum speed of 50 m.p.h. is possible. An economy of 10 miles per gallon of gasoline was obtained on a fifteen hour trip made between San Francisco and Los Angeles. The car, which weighs 8,000 lb., is fitted all around with 32 x 44-in. tires which need be inflated but to the customary pressure of 70 lb.

“The length over all is 26 ft. and the seating capacity is twenty, with the six seats extending entirely across the body with an individual door for each on the right-hand side. The small size of the wheels combined with the off-set chassis frame construction over the two rear axles has prevented this novel construction from increasing the body height over the usual height. Because of the cross-seat construction it has been possible to provide a large space in the rear for baggage. Both front and rear of the car are protected by heavy steel bumpers.

“The machine was designed and constructed by R. B. Fageol of the American Highway Transportation Company, San Francisco, Cal.

“No. 1—The high-speed eightwheel twenty-passenger interurban bus.

No. 2—Each axle conforms independently to inequality in road surface.

No. 3—The bus is steered with all four front wheels.

No. 4 — Chassis showing the raised frame over the rear axles.”

An illustration of Rollie’s eight-wheeled bus appeared on the cover of the February 1922 issue of Popular Mechanics which also contained an article by H.A. Lane that referenced the vehicle inside:

“Motor Bus Travel Attains World Scope

“Astonishing Developments in This Mode Transportation – Tourists of the Future may Prefer Busses To Railroads – Motor-Car Touring will be Brought Within the Reach of All.

“by H.A. Lane

“Noteworthy departures from the usual manner of travel by tourists, have been evidenced by the constantly increasing demand for reservations on motor busses operating in various parts of the world. And equally remarkable have been the developments in the construction of these busses, until at the present time there have been incorporated into them sumptuous appointments which rival the best accommodations available on railroad trains or steamship lines. If present indications may be taken as a prophecy, the bulk of tourist migration in the future will be handled by this method of transportation.

“Ancient and medieval ruins, together with historic and romantic localities, will always be the Mecca of tourists, and pilgrimages to these placed are being made more pleasurable each year by the facilities offered by the motor bus. While pleasure seekers annually migrate to all sections of the country, in advance of inclement weather, California is undoubtedly the greatest magnet for this class of people, and it is fitting that the latest development of the motor bus should emanate from there. The innovation consists of an eight-wheeled car, with a seating capacity of 20 persons, and a spacious compartment for the luggage of the passengers. For safeguarding the traveling public, the eight-wheel bus possesses many advantages over the four-wheel type. The new machine steers on all front wheels, which are fastened together by a special spring suspension, and constitute a truck, as likewise do the rear wheels. The car is driven by, and the brakes applied to, the four rear wheels, so that it superiority is obvious. If when running at top speed, one front or rear axle should break, the other axle would maintain the weight of the car.Likewise if under the same conditions a front tire blows out, the machine can be steered on the three remaining tires, thus avoiding an accident. Although the bus weighs 8,000 lb., the pavement strain is considerably less than would be the case of a four-wheel car of the same weight, because of the eight bearing points, and because an air pressure of only 70 lb. is used in the tires, in comparison with the 90 lb. of the four-wheel type. Extensive test made with this machine have satisfactorily proved that it will not skid, that it ride more comfortably than any four-wheel motor car, than an average of 10 miles can be made on one gallon of gasoline. The eight-wheel bus has five cross seats for passengers, with a door for each seat, while the driver’s seat has a door on each side. Although the interior of this new departure in motor-bus building is comfortably upholstered, there can be no comparison between it and some of the luxuriously arranged busses in Europe.”

The May 1, 1922 issue of the Commercial Vehicle announced that construction of Rollie B. Fageol’s eight-wheel bus that was introduced in February was also progressing:

“To Produce Fageol 8-Wheel Bus

“San Jose, Cal., April 17 - A 3-acre tract at Long Beach has been purchased by the National Axle Corp., this city, upon which a factory will be built to assemble the eight wheel motor buses made by the National company under the Fageol patents. The axle plant will remain at San Jose.”

Curiously the name of the manufacturer of the Fageol bus had changed from the American Highway Transportation Co. to the National Axle Corp. Further details of the latter vehicle were published in the September, 1922 issue of Power Wagon:

“Eight-Wheeled Truck and ’Bus Chassis in Production: Considerable Fuel Savings Claimed

“The National Axle Corporation of San Jose, California, is beginning the manufacture of the 8-wheeled motor ‘bus, street-car and truck for California, Oregon and Washington, under contract with the Eight Wheel Motor Vehicle Company, of 350 Post Street, San Francisco. The ‘bus is designed to carry 24 passengers in interurban stage service. The street-car for 31 passengers has full headroom, cross-seats on each side of a center aisle, arranged for ‘pay-as-you-enter,’ and one man control. The truck is of a 4-ton capacity for fast transportation.

“The advantages of the 8-wheel principle have been proven by actual operation of a full-sized ‘bus which was built a year ago and has been driven over California highways and mountain roads for over 13,000 miles. The first 2,500 miles of road-testing developed what few minor changes were needed in the design and construction. The completed stage was operated under regular working conditions in all kinds of weather in full satisfaction.

“The chassis are built with four front steering wheels and four rear driving wheels, designed so as to give extreme flexibility in both the front and rear sets of wheels. The load is thus distributed over eight wheels, each wheel carrying half as much load as would be the case if there were only the usual four. Indeed this difference is even greater, from the fact that special attention was given to designing the eight-wheel trucks so that the center of gravity of the load is much farther forward than on the ordinary four-wheeler. In the latter the two rear wheels usually carry about 85 per cent of the total load, while in the 8-wheel truck the four rear wheels carry only about 55 per cent., and the four front wheels about 45 per cent of the load. Therefore, wheels and tires may be comparatively small, effecting economy and safety of operation. The center of gravity of the car being correspondingly low, these vehicles are not likely to slide off the road, or overturn on sharp curves taken at continuous speed.

“The two front axles are connected by springs on either side, so arranged that the axles oscillate about a central trunnion bar. If one tire blows out—indeed if a whole wheel comes off—the loss is so taken up by the interrelation of the four wheels of the front set, that the steering ability is not materially affected. Since the load is so distributed, normal tire pressures are sufficient for the 8-wheel vehicle, giving great resilience, as well as security against skidding and blowing out.

“The flexibility of the 8-wheel construction is such that when the wheels on one axle roll over a bump, the body is raised only half as high as would be the case with the ordinary 4-wheel chassis. Considering the 8-wheel vehicle, suppose the leading wheel of the front set goes into a. hole in the road four inches deep. Its axle drops four inches. The following wheel of the front set still remains on the level, so its axle does not drop at all. Therefore, the trunnion, midway between the two axles, drops but two inches. Yet the time it takes the leading axle to drop four inches is the same as that taken by the trunnion in dropping two inches. Therefore, the velocity of drop of the axle of the leading wheel is twice as great as the velocity of drop of the trunnion. Now, the force of impact is directly proportional to the energy of motion, which in tum is directly proportional to the square of the velocity, according to the formula E=% m vs. Therefore, since the velocity of drop of the axle is twice as great as that of the trunnion, the energy of its motion would be as the square of 4 is to the square of 2, or as 16 is to 4. In other words, the bump or jolt upon the body of the 8-wheel car is only one-quarter as great as is the case with a 4-wheeler, or the 8-wheel principle makes for four times as great riding ease than is possible with the 4-wheel principle, say the makers. The collective supporting effect of all eight wheels is on the centerline of the chassis, instead of at the corners of the frame.

“Since there are four rear driving wheels on the ground, the tractive effort is double that of the usual two—wheel drive. Also, by the inter-construction of the driving axles, each wheel holds the road well. This eliminates skidding and slippage. When an ordinary chassis runs over a bump, or jumps a rut, one or both rear wheels will be slightly off the road, and tend to run ahead or behind the rest of the car, according to whether the motor is pulling, or the brakes holding back. Upon return to the road a slight skidding or slipping occurs, which not only jars the passengers uncomfortably, but causes extra wear on the tires. Through the prevention of this slippage and other economies a saving of 15 to 25 per cent in gasolene consumption is said to be made possible.

“Heretofore it has been the practice to have the two front wheels of all automobiles ‘toe in,’ in order to offset the drag due to the plane of revolution of the wheel being outside the pivotal point of the steering knuckle. Neither of the front wheels runs parallel to the direction of motion of the car, so there is a sliding effect on the tires, causing wear. This feature has been eliminated in the 8-wheel construction, by making the tires revolve about a point directly under the steering pivot. Therefore, the wheels run straight, and the wear on the front tires is avoided, according to the makers.

“There is a separate brake upon each of the eight wheels. Furthermore, the brakes are operated by compressed air, in the same manner as those on a. railroad train. Thus, the driver is enabled to stop a full loaded 'bus quickly, and without physical exertion, no matter what the condition of the road. Also, since the brake area is so great, the effect required of each brake lining is correspondingly less.

“Another innovation in the 8-wheel vehicle is a transmission providing 8 speeds forward and 2 reverse. In every speed the transmission is practically noiseless and free from vibration. Passenger-carrying service requires frequent stops, so that the only way to maintain a fast schedule, without traveling at too high a speed, is by quick acceleration in starting. Also, it is desirable to operate the engine at its most economical speed.

“Safety for passengers is accomplished by the low center of gravity, and constant traction, which insure against skidding and overturning; by the eight small tires and wheels, enabling sure control of the car in spite of blow-outs or loss of wheel; by the eight air-brakes, for quick stopping in emergency; and by the provisions for comfortable and easy operation, leaving the driver untroubled to watch the road with the vigilance essential to safety.

“Comfortable riding is provided by the reduction of bumps and shocks; by the elimination of transmission noise and vibration, whether running in low or high gears; by the resilience from moderate tire pressures; and by the cushioning of all working parts.

“Economy of operation is attained by use of small wheels, and stock car tires; by enlarging the brake area, with consequent saving of brake -linings; by prevention of excessive wear of tires, with elimination of slippage and skidding-particularly of rear wheels—and by making unnecessary the ‘toeing-in’ of front wheels; by 15 to 20 per cent saving of gasolene, due to positive traction, and to prevention of slippage, and racing of engine by elimination of torsion stresses, and consequent long life of frame and body; and by the eight ratio transmission, enabling maintenance of proper engine speed in all gears.”

The September 16, 1922 issue of Automobile Topics announced that Col. Winship had organized a firm to exploit his eight-wheeled motor coach whose name was more descriptive than the American Highway Transportation Co.:

“Eight Wheel Motor Vehicle Co., San Francisco, Cal. To manufacture eight wheel motor vehicles. Capital $200,000. Incorporators: Emery Winship, R. B. Bonn, B. H. Beecher, and others.”

The National Axle Corp. inserted a display ad picturing the ‘Pacific 8-Wheeler’ in the December 1922 issue of Bus Transportation:

“Pacific ‘8 Wheeler’

“Built for carrying passengers

“The Pacific ‘8 Wheeler’ is not a ‘made-over’ machine in any sense of the word. Form the very beginning of the work which resulted in the development of this superior vehicle, safety, comfort and economy in carrying passengers has been given prime consideration. Write for full details on Pacific ‘8 Wheelers’ and tell us about the conditions under which you must operate.”

The April 1923 issue of Popular Mechanics included a picture of a Rollie B. Fageol-designed eight-wheel motor truck accompanied by the following article:

“San Diego Motor Truck Runs on Eight Wheels

“An eight-wheel motor truck in use in San Diego, Calif., with a speed of 35 miles an hour, is designed for fast freight service. The chassis is built with four rear driving wheels and four front steering wheels. The two front axles are connected by springs on either side, so arranged that the axles oscillate about a central trunnion bar. Better distribution of weight and greater stability are claimed for the construction, which throws only 55 per cent of weight on the rear wheels, instead of the usual 85 per cent. Owing to the arrangement of the front wheels, steering is not greatly affected if a tire blows out or a wheel comes off. Also much less pressure in the pneumatic tires is required. This is an application to a freight truck of the principle embodied in the eight-wheeled California motor bus described in the February, 1922, issue of Popular Mechanics magazine.”

Caption states the vehicle is a product of the Eight-Wheel Motor Car Co. 350 Post St., San Francisco, and also mentioned the National Axle Corporation, San Jose, Calif.

April 15, 1923 issue of Motor West:

“A picture in the March 1 issue, of two eight-wheelers, was described incorrectly. One, a truck, was not a Moreland but, like the other, a passenger bus, was built by National Axle Corp., San Jose, Cal., for Eight Wheel Motor Vehicle Co., 350 Post St., San Francisco. Emory Winship, of the company, says the San Jose concern ‘has not now any eight-wheel work in its shops, nor has it any manufacturing rights or licenses from us. These cars, and all patents and designs pertaining to the eight-wheel art, are owned by our company. The models now are undergoing exhaustive and severe tests, to discover any points of weakness before production on a commercial basis is begun.’”

In fact, Winships’ ‘Eight-wheel Coach’ shared the same drivetrain as the ‘Pacific 8-wheeler’ being offered by the National Axle Corp., and he was also the man behind the American Highway Transportation Co. which introduced a nearly identical vehicle in November of 1921 using Rollie B. Fageol’s patents.The Colonel tried to clear up the confusion via the following article that was published in the June 15, 1923 issue of the Commercial Car Journal:

“Winship Clears Up Confusion on 8-Wheel Vehicles

“Owing to some confusion as to the manufacturer of the Pacific Eight-Wheel Coach, Emory Winship of San Francisco has been asked to clear up this matter. Mr. Winship has replied through Ray J. Barber as follows:

“Mr. Winship is the sole owner of the Eight-Wheel Motor Vehicle Company. Last year he made a tentative arrangement with the National Axle Corporation of San Jose, California, under which they built one 10-ton 8-wheel truck and one 31 passenger 8-wheel motor street car. These vehicles were made to Mr. Win-ship’s order, the National Axle Corporation simply acting as a contract shop for him. * * * Now the National Axle Corporation had no 8-wheel work in their shops, nor any connection with the 8- wheel program.

“The Eight-Wheel Motor Vehicle Company, which, as above stated, is owned by Mr. Emory Winship, controls all of the fundamental 8-wheel patents that have been issued, as well as many applications for patents that are still pending. Negotiations are now nearing completion for the commercial production of 8-wheel buses, street cars and trucks in the immediate future, so that they bid fair soon to become an important factor in highway transportation.”

Although production of the Fageol-Winship eight wheel trucks didn’t get beyond the prototype stage, Col. Winship remained interest in the technology and purchased Rollie Fageol’s patents relating to the vehicles. The ‘Pacific 8-wheeler’ pictured in the National Axle Corp.’s advertisement was actually the coach that the firm had been constructed for Winship’s American Highway Transportation Co. in 1921. The second eight-wheel motor coach and matching eight-wheel stake-bed truck constructed by National Axle were built for Winship’s second firm, the Eight-Wheel Motor Vehicle Company.

Frank R. Fageol’s far more successful bus building activities were totally unrelated to his brother Rollie’s and are covered in great detail on the Fageol Motors and Twin Coach pages.

Rollie had little to do with either firm, although his name appears on at least one Twin Coach patent. For the next 15 years he continued to design heavy-duty axles and drivetrains which were licesnsed to numerous manufacturers and contineud to design new types and styles bumpers. Just prior to his passing the March 1942 issue of Popular Science introduced his latest designe:

“To cushion the impact of colliding auto bumpers, a type equipped with a pair of resilient buffers has been worked out by Rollie B. Fageol of Beverly Hills, Calif. Passing through the center of each doughnut-shaped buffer, a bolt fastens it and a shock-absorbing mounting block to the main part of the bumper. A recess in the buffer permits the bolt to be sunk well behind the cushioning face. Danger of injury to passengers, which may be pitched forward or backward in even a minor collision is declared to be minimized by the additional protection. In addition, the inventor maintains, the buffers offer a safeguard against marred, bent, or broken bumpers, and are not themselves easily damaged.”

© 2013 Mark Theobald for

Appendix - Fageol brothers patents:

Automobile - US675379 - Grant - Filed Sep 11, 1900 - Issued June 4, 1901 – Rollie B. Fageol

Crude Petroleum Burner - US719573 Grant - Filed Apr 18, 1902 - Issued Feb 3, 1903 - R.B. Fageol

Inclined Suspended Railway - US817699 Grant - Filed Nov 28, 1903 - Issued Apr 10, 1906 - R.B. Fageol

Pleasure Railway - US927517 Grant - Filed Feb 10, 1908 - Issued Jul 13, 1909 – Frank R. Fageol

Manufactured of Filled Bumpers - US1189675 Grant - Filed Sep 5, 1911 - Issued Jul 4, 1916 – R.B. Fageol

Vehicle - US1160499 - Grant - Filed Jan 5, 1915 - Issued Nov 16, 1915 - R.B. Fageol

Vehicle Body - USD47287 - Grant - Filed Jan 5, 1915 - Issued May 4, 1915 - R.B. Fageol

Vehicle - US1212616 - Grant - Filed Jul 26, 1915 - Issued Jan 16, 1917 - R.B. Fageol

Transportation System - US1219276 - Grant - Filed Jul 26, 1915 - Issued Mar 13, 1917 - R.B. Fageol

Amusement device for bathers - US1190743 - Grant - Filed Aug 17, 1915 - Issued Jul 11, 1916 - R.B. Fageol

Vehicle Body - USD48778 - Grant - Filed Dec 28, 1915 - Issued Mar 28, 1916 - R.B. Fageol

Flexible Vehicle - US1226958 - Grant - Filed Jan 3, 1916 - Issued May 22, 1917 - R.B. Fageol

Vehicle Body - USD48968 - Grant - Filed Feb 15, 1916 - Issued May 2, 1916 - R.B. Fageol

Flexible Road Train - US1226962 - Grant - Filed Jul 25, 1916 - Issued May 22, 1917 - R.B. Fageol

Vehicle Body - USD49959 - Grant - Filed Sep 12, 1916 - Issued Nov 28, 1916 - R.B. Fageol

Tread for Tractor Wheels - US1268445 - Grant - Filed Apr 16, 1917 - Issued Jun 4, 1918 – R.B. Fageol & Charles A. Smith

Automobile Radiator - USD50270 - Grant - Filed Sep 21, 1916 - Issued Feb 6, 1917 – Frank R. Fageol

Automobile Hood - USD51492 - Grant - Filed Jun 20, 1917 - Issued Nov 20, 1917 - Frank R. Fageol

Bumper for Motor Vehicles - US1329517 - Grant - Filed Nov 9, 1917 - Issued Feb 3, 1920 – R.B. Fageol

Coupling for Vehicles - US1407019 - Grant - Filed May 26, 1919 - Issued Feb 21, 1922 - R.B. Fageol

Power Transmission Gear Mechanism - - US1463389 - Grant - Filed Dec 15, 1920 - Issued Jul 31, 1923 – William B. Fageol

Automobile Bumper - US1427275 - Grant - Filed Mar 31, 1921 - Issued Aug 29, 1922 - R.B. Fageol

Motor Vehicle - US1660189 - Grant - Filed May 18, 1921 - Issued Feb 21, 1928 - R.B. Fageol assigned to Eight-Wheel Motor Vehicle Co.

Motor Vehicle & Fender Assembly - USD59728 - Grant - Filed May 26, 1921 - Issued Nov 22, 1921- R.B. Fageol

Torqueing Arrangement for Tandem-axle Vehicles - US1739355 - Grant - Filed Nov 2, 1921 - Issued Dec 10, 1929 - R.B. Fageol assigned to Eight-Wheel Motor Vehicle Co.

Road Vehicle - US1660188 - Grant - Filed Nov 2, 1921 - Issued Feb 21, 1928 - R.B. Fageol

Vehicle - US1763767 - Grant - Filed Jan 20, 1922 - Issued Jun 17, 1930 - R.B. Fageol

Automobile Body - US1452369 - Grant - Filed Feb 16, 1922 - Issued Apr 17, 1923 – Frank R. Fageol

Bumper Mounting - US1500380 - Grant - Filed Jan 31, 1923 - Issued Jul 8, 1924 - R.B. Fageol

Bumper For Automobiles - US1482226 - Grant - Filed Jan 31, 1923 - Issued Jan 29, 1924 - R.B. Fageol

Clamping Device for Automobile Bumpers - US1519399 - Grant - Filed Apr 10, 1923 - Issued Dec 16, 1924 - R.B. Fageol assigned to American Chain Co.

Road Vehicle - USRE17889 - Grant - Filed Apr 23, 1923 - Issued Dec 2, 1930 - R.B. Fageol - assigned to Eight-Wheel Motor Vehicle Co. (re-issue)

Automobile Brake - US1633776 - Grant - Filed Jun 18, 1923 - Issued Jun 28, 1927 – William B. Fageol assigned to Rollie B. Fageol

Tandem Drive Axle - US1933667 - Grant - Filed Sep 25, 1923 - Issued Nov 7, 1933 - R.B. Fageol assigned to Eight-Wheel Motor Vehicle Co.

Resilient Radiator Shield - US1628131 - Grant - Filed Oct 15, 1923 - Issued May 10, 1927 - R.B. Fageol

Motor Vehicle - US1947337 - Grant - Filed Feb 11, 1925 - Issued Feb 13, 1934 - R.B. Fageol assigned to Automotive Engineering Corp.

Automobile End Fender - US1581432 - Grant - Filed Feb 18, 1925 - Issued Apr 20, 1926 – R.B. Fageol assigned to American Chain Co.

Combined Fender Guard and Bumper - US1595390 - Grant - Filed Feb 18, 1925 - Issued Aug. 10, 1926 – R.B. Fageol assigned to American Chain Co.

Bumper for Automobiles - US1595391 - Grant - Filed Feb 18, 1925 - Issued Aug 10, 1926 – R.B. Fageol assigned to American Chain Co.

Fender Guard - US1637770 - Grant - Filed Feb 18, 1925 - Issued Aug 2, 1927 - R.B. Fageol assigned to American Chain Co.

Design For A scooter - USD71011 Grant - Filed Mar 3, 1925 - Issued Sep 7, 1926 - R.B. Fageol

Parallel Bar Bumper - US1623583 - Grant - Filed Jun 3, 1925 - Issued Apr 5, 1927 - R.B. Fageol assigned to American Chain Co.

Vehicle Bumper - USD67952 - Grant - Filed Jun 3, 1925 - Issued Aug 11, 1925 - R.B. Fageol assigned to American Chain Co.

Bumper Tip - US1678853 - Grant - Filed Jun 10, 1925 - Issued Jul 31, 1928 - R.B. Fageol assigned to American Chain Co.

Multibar Bumper - US1620334 - Grant - Filed Jun 10, 1925 - Issued Mar 8, 1927 - R.B. Fageol assigned to American Chain Co.

Multiple Wheel Road Vehicle - US1871432 - Grant - Filed Jun 11, 1925 - Issued Aug 9, 1932 - R.B. Fageol assigned to Automotive Engineering Corp.

Vehicle Body - USD74261 - Grant - Filed Jul 22, 1925 - Issued Jan 17, 1928 - R.B. Fageol

Spring Vehicle - US1727759 - Grant - Filed Mar 8, 1926 - Issued Sep 10, 1929 - R.B. Fageol

Toy Vehicle - US1679819 - Grant - Filed Mar 17, 1926 - Issued Aug 7, 1928 - R.B. Fageol

Convertible Wagon and Sled - US1654284 - Grant - Filed Aug 9, 1926 - Issued Dec 27, 1927 - R.B. Fageol

Child’s Spring Vehicle - US1704315 - Grant - Filed Aug 9, 1926 - Issued Mar 5, 1929 - R.B. Fageol

Bumper - US1723774 - Grant - Filed Apr 27, 1927 - Issued Aug 6, 1929 - R.B. Fageol assigned to American Chain Co.

Snubber For Vehicle Springs - US1771560 - Grant - Filed Sep 14, 1927 - Issued Jul 29, 1930 - R.B. Fageol

Vehicle Snubber and Spring Suspension - US1781631 - Grant - Filed Oct 11, 1927 - Issued Nov 11, 1930 - R.B. Fageol

Rail Car - US1883357 - Grant - Filed May 29, 1928 - Issued Oct 18, 1932 – William B. Fageol assigned to Twin Coach Co.

Multi-wheel Road Vehicle - US1913799 - Grant - Filed Sep 27, 1928 - Issued Jun 13, 1933 - R.B. Fageol assigned to Automotive Engineering Corp.

Rail Car Construction - US1880953 - Grant - Filed Feb 13, 1929 - Issued Oct 4, 1932 – William B. Fageol assigned to Twin Coach Co.

Multi-wheel Road Vehicle - US1981449 - Grant - Filed Mar 18, 1929 - Issued Nov 20, 1934 - R.B. Fageol assigned to Automotive Engineering Corp.

Multi-wheel Road Vehicle - US1981593 - Grant - Filed Jun 3, 1929 - Issued Nov 20, 1934 - R.B. Fageol

Multiwheel Twin-Motor Road Vehicle - US1973144 - Grant - Filed Jul 18, 1929 - Issued Sep 11, 1934 – William B. Fageol assigned to Twin Coach Co.

Dual Drive Road Vehicle - US1992365 - Grant - Filed Aug 3, 1929 - Issued Feb 26, 1935 - R.B. Fageol assigned to Automotive Engineering Corp.

Multi-wheel Road Vehicle - US2006800 - Grant - Filed Aug 3, 1929 - Issued Jul 2, 1935 - R.B. Fageol assigned to Automotive Engineering Corp.

Low Bed Delivery Truck - US2018443 - Grant - Filed Aug 28, 1929 - Issued Oct 22, 1935 – William B. Fageol

Motor Coach - US1861001 - Grant - Filed Oct 18, 1929 - Issued May 31, 1932 – William B. Fageol assigned to Twin Coach Co.

Internal Combustion Engine - US1887998 - Grant - Filed Oct 21, 1929 - Issued Nov 15, 1932 – William B. Fageol assigned to Twin Coach Co.

Universal Joint - US1932400 - Grant - Filed Nov 7, 1929 - Issued Oct 31, 1933 – William B. Fageol assigned to Twin Coach Co.

Device for Interconnecting Axles - US1936834 - Grant - Filed Dec 3, 1929 - Issued Nov 28, 1933 - R.B. Fageol assigned to Automotive Engineering Corp.

Dual Drive Multiwheel Road Vehicle - US1949830 - Grant - Filed Dec 5, 1929 - Issued Mar 6, 1934 - R.B. Fageol assigned to Automotive Engineering Corp.

Traction Regulating Means for Multiwheel Road Vehicles - US1926273 - Grant - Filed Dec 7, 1929 - Issued Sep 12, 1933 - R.B. Fageol assigned to Automotive Engineering Corp.

Multiwheel Road Vehicle - US1924984 - Grant - Filed Dec 12, 1929 - Issued Aug 29, 1933 - R.B. Fageol assigned to Automotive Engineering Corp.

Multiwheel Vehicle of the Tandem Axle Type - US1926274 - Grant - Filed Apr 26, 1930 - Issued Sep 12, 1933 - R.B. Fageol assigned to Automotive Engineering Corp.

Cooling System For Self-Propelled Vehicles - US1969172 - Grant - Filed Sep 6, 1930 - Issued Aug 7, 1934 – Frank R. Fageol assigned to Twin Coach Co.

Sealing Device - US1931724 - Grant - Filed Sep 23, 1930 - Issued Oct 24, 1933 - R.B. Fageol & William E. Leibing

Electrically Driven Road Vehicle and Method of Operating Same - US1972333 - Grant - Filed Oct 16, 1930 - Issued Sep 4, 1934 – William B. Fageol assigned to Twin Coach Co.

Railway Rolling Stock - US1916470 - Grant - Filed Oct 20, 1930 - Issued Jul 4, 1933 – Frank R. Fageol assigned to Twin Coach Co.

Passenger Carrying Motor Vehicle - US1861002 - Grant - Filed Nov 8, 1930 - Issued May 31, 1932 – William B. Fageol assigned to Twin Coach Co.

Fuel Control Apparatus - US1982049 - Grant - Filed Mar 20, 1931 - Issued Nov 27, 1934 – Robley D. Fageol assigned to Leibing Automotive Devices Inc.

Flexible Guard for Road Vehicles - US1825344 - Grant - Filed Apr 1, 1931 - Issued Sep 29, 1931 – William B. Fageol assigned to Twin Coach Co.

Motor Vehicle - USD84576 - Grant - Filed May 7, 1931 - Issued Jul 7, 1931 – Frank R. Fageol & William B. Fageol assigned to Twin Coach Co.

Fruit Juice Extracting Press - US2010629 - Grant - Filed Jun 15, 1931 - Issued Aug 6, 1935 – R.B. Fageol & Huston Taylor

Motor Vehicle Control - US2003431 - Grant - Filed Aug 21, 1931 - Issued Jun 4, 1935 - William B. Fageol

Headlight Mounting For Motor Vehicles - US2007599 - Grant - Filed Sep 22, 1931 - Issued Jul 9, 1935 - William B. Fageol assigned to Twin Coach Co.

Trackless Trolley Vehicle - US1988073 - Grant - Filed Oct 23, 1931 - Issued Jan 15, 1935 - William B. Fageol assigned to Twin Coach Co.

Motor Vehicle - USD87875 - Grant - Filed Nov 3, 1931 - Issued Oct 4, 1932 – William B. Fageol assigned to Twin Coach Co.

Vehicle Drive and Control Mechanism - US2097391 - Grant - Filed Dec 16, 1931 - Issued Oct 26, 1937 - William B. Fageol assigned to Divco-Twin Truck Co.

Dumping Vehicle - US1996540 - Grant - Filed Apr 15, 1932 - Issued Apr 2, 1935 - William B. Fageol & Frank R. Fageol assigned to Twin Coach Co.

Road Vehicle Body Frame - US2039215 - Grant - Filed May 3, 1932 - Issued Apr 28, 1936 – William B. Fageol assigned to Twin Coach Co.

Pneumatic Tire Combination Rail and Highway Unit - US2027684 - Grant - Filed May 26, 1932 - Issued Jan 14, 1936 – William B. Fageol assigned to Twin Coach Co.

Carburetor - US2034048 - Grant - Filed Sep 28, 1932 - Issued Mar 17, 1936 – William E. Leibing & Robley D. Fageol assigned to Leibing Automotive Devices Inc.

Pneumatic-Tired Highway and Rail Vehicle - US2140421 - Grant - Filed Nov 14, 1933 - Issued Dec 13, 1938 – William B. Fageol assigned to Twin Coach Co.

Motor Vehicle - USD91556 - Grant - Filed Dec 20, 1933 - Issued Feb 20, 1934 - William B. Fageol assigned to Twin Coach Co.

Universal Joint Construction - US2025502 - Grant - Filed Jan 29, 1934 - Issued Dec 24, 1935 - William B. Fageol assigned to Twin Coach Co.

Unit Section Automotive Vehicle - US2128930 - Grant - Filed May 18, 1934 - Issued Sep 6, 1938 - Frank R. Fageol & William B. Fageol; one-fifth assigned to Strauch & Hoffman (William A. Strauch & James A. Hoffman, attorneys)

Motor Vehicle and Vehicle Power and Drive Mechanism - US2083059 - Grant - Filed Jun 5, 1934 - Issued Jun 8, 1937 - William B. Fageol assigned to Twin Coach Co.

Motor Vehicle and Vehicle Driving Mechanism - US2118810 - Grant - Filed Apr 6, 1935 - Issued May 31, 1938 - William B. Fageol assigned to Twin Coach Co.

Driving Mechanism - US2118811 - Grant - Filed Apr 9, 1935 - Issued May 31, 1938 - William B. Fageol assigned to Twin Coach Co.

Driving Mechanism - US2118812 - Grant - Filed Apr 9, 1935 - Issued May 31, 1938 - William B. Fageol assigned to Twin Coach Co.

Cooling Apparatus for Automotive Vehicles - US2123991 - Grant - Filed Jan 14, 1936 - Issued Jul 19, 1938 - William B. Fageol assigned to Twin Coach Co.

Vehicle Driving Construction and Arrangement - US2232105 - Grant - Filed Jun 4, 1936 - Issued Feb 18, 1941 - William B. Fageol assigned to Twin Coach Co.

Panel Mounting - US2173435 - Grant - Filed Mar 8, 1937 - Issued Sep 19, 1939 - William B. Fageol assigned to Twin Coach Co.

Smoker’s Accessory - US2183425 - Grant - Filed May 10, 1937 - Issued Dec 12, 1939 – R.B. Fageol

Non-hook, Non-skid Bumper Construction - US2173642 - Grant - Filed Sep 20, 1937 - Issued Sep 19, 1939 - R.B. Fageol

Passenger Vehicle - US2251584 - Grant - Filed May 25, 1938 - Issued Aug 5, 1941 - Frank R. Fageol & William B. Fageol assigned to Twin Coach Co.

Reinforced Vehicle Body Construction - US2239089 - Grant - Filed Dec 29, 1938 - Issued Apr 22, 1941 - William B. Fageol assigned to Twin Coach Co.

Toy Vehicle - USD115668 - Grant - Filed Jan 5, 1939 - Issued Jul 11, 1939 – R.B. Fageol

Shock Absorbing Element - US2243462 - Grant - Filed Jun 19, 1939 - Issued May 27, 1941 – R.B. Fageol

Automobile Buffer - US2257495 - Grant - Filed Sep 18, 1939 - Issued Sep 30, 1941 – R.B. Fageol

Automobile Bumper Guard - US2259440 - Grant - Filed Sep 18, 1939 - Issued Oct 21, 1941 – R.B. Fageol

Governor - US2300378 - Grant - Filed Nov 24, 1939 - Issued Oct 27, 1942 – Robley D. Fageol & William E Leibing assigned to Leibing-Fageol Co.

Vehicle Spring Suspension - US2344983 - Grant - Filed Dec 28, 1940 - Issued Mar 28, 1944 - William B. Fageol assigned to Twin Coach Co.

Vehicle Spring Suspension - US2330482 - Grant - Filed Mar 26, 1941 - Issued Sep 28, 1943 - Issued Mar 28, 1944 - William B. Fageol assigned to Twin Coach Co.

Carburetor - US2443464 - Grant - Filed Jun 7, 1943 - Issued Jun 15, 1948 - William E. Leibing & Robley D. Fageol assigned to R.D. Fageol Co.

Vehicle Suspension - US2404794 - Grant - Filed Aug 7, 1943 - Issued Jul 30, 1946 - William B. Fageol assigned to Twin Coach Co.

Oscillating Van Rotary Pump - US2526621 - Grant - Filed Dec 23, 1944 - Issued Oct 24, 1950 - William E. Leibing & Robley D. Fageol assigned to R.D. Fageol Co.

Fageol Child’s Vehicle - USD144703 - Grant - Filed Aug 8, 1945 - Issued May 14, 1946 - William B. Fageol

Flexible Drive - US2491820 - Grant - Filed Sep 17, 1945 - Issued Dec 20, 1949 - William E. Leibing & Robley D. Fageol assigned to R.D. Fageol Co.

Wheeled Vehicle for Children - US2423590 - Grant - Filed Oct 1, 1945 - Issued Jul 8, 1947 - William B. Fageol

Engine Attachment - US2466090 - Grant - Filed Mar 1, 1946 - Issued Apr 5, 1949 - Robley D. Fageol assigned to R.D. Fageol Co.

Pressure Actuated Transmission - US2634709 - Grant - Filed Feb 2, 1949 - Issued Apr 14, 1953 - Robley D. Fageol assigned to R.D. Fageol Co.

Speed Response Governor for Internal Combustion Engines - US2651316 - Grant - Filed Apr 12, 1949 - Issued Sep 8, 1953 - Robley D. Fageol assigned to R.D. Fageol Co.

Pressure Actuated Transmission Control Unit - US2584995 - Grant - Filed Apr 12, 1949 - Issued Feb 12, 1952 - Robley D. Fageol assigned to R.D. Fageol Co.

Method for the Production of Vehicles - US2773304 - Grant - Filed May 5, 1953 - Issued Dec 11, 1956 – Louis J. Fageol assigned to Twin Coach Co.

Method for Construction of Self-Propelled Vehicles - US2791826 - Grant - Filed May 19, 1953 - Issued May 14, 1957 – Louis J. Fageol assigned to Twin Coach Co.

Single Lever Control for Power Plant Carburetor and Transmission - US2808733 - Grant - Filed May 24, 1956 - Issued Oct 8, 1957 – Louis J. Fageol assigned to Twin Coach Co.

Vertical Shaft Inboard Marine Power Plant Installations - US2976836 - Grant - Filed May 24, 1956 - Issued Mar 28, 1961 – Louis J. Fageol

Internal Combustion Engines and Methods of Manufacturing Such Engines- US2852837 - Grant - Filed Dec 4, 1956 - Issued Sep 23, 1958 – Louis J. Fageol assigned to Twin Coach Co.

Marine Power Propulsion Assemblies - US3164122 - Grant - Filed Feb 26, 1962 - Issued Jan 5, 1965 – Louis J. Fageol deceased by Caryl Morris Fageol assigned to Textron Inc.





Beverly Rae Kimes & Henry Austin Clark - Standard Catalog of American Cars: 1805-1942

Indianapolis Motor Speedway Collection – Indiana University -Purdue University, Indianapolis Library

James B. Holm & Lucille Dudley – Portage Heritage: A History of Portage County, Ohio; its Towns and its People, pub. 1957

Fageol Brothers History - Antique Automobile, January-February 2002 issue

William A. Luke - Fageol & Twin Coach Buses, pub. 2002

Francis Bradford & Ric Dias - Hall-Scott: The Untold Story of a Great American Engine Maker, pub. 2007

Debra D. Brill – The History of the J.G. Brill Company, pub. 2001

Eli Bail - Frank Fageol and his Twin Coach, Bus World, Spring 1988 issue.

Eli Bail - Fageol, Motor Coach Age, Nov.-Dec. 1991 issue

Frederick A. Usher - Fageol’s Folly: An Automobile Superlative, Automobile Quarterly, Vol. 22, No. 1

Andris Kristopans - Chicago Part 2: Chicago Transit Authority Takes Over: 1947–1958, Motor Coach Age, April–June 2000 issue

Winfield Scott Downs - National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, Vol. XLIII, pub. 1967

Edward Kaminski - American Car and Foundry Company, pub.1999

William Luke - Buses of ACF, pub. 2003

William Wagner - Continental!: Its Motors and Its People, pub. 1983

Bryan Hill - Made in Kent; the Fageol Bros. & The Twin Coach Co. (DVD)

Fred Farley - The Lou Fageol Story,

Ayer, Robert L. Ayer - Kenworth, Motor Coach Age, Vol. 33, No. 8/9, Aug.-Sep. 1981 issue

189 F.2d 704: ACF-Brill Motors Co. v. Commissioner of Internal Revenue, Argued April 5, 1951, US Court of Appeals Cases F.2d, volume 189, published 1952

Frank R. Fageol - Problems in the Development of the Motor-Coach Body and Chassis, SAE Journal, Vol. 18, No. 1, pub. 1927

Jim Reisler - Cash and Carry: The Spectacular Rise and Hard Fall of C.C. Pyle, America's First Sports Agent, pub. 2009

Harold W. Pace & Mark R. Brinker - Vintage American Road Racing Cars: 1950-1970, pub. 2004

Geoff Williams - C.C. Pyle's Amazing Foot Race: The True Story of the 1928 Coast-to-Coast Run Across America, pub. 2007

Eugene T. Sawyer - History of Santa Clara County, California, with Biographical Sketches, pub. 1922

Joseph Tyrone Derry- Story of the Confederate States, pub. 1895

Press Reference Library - Notables of the West; Vol. II, International News Service, pub. 1915

Bill Vossler – Fageol Tractor History Begins In the Midwest, Polk’s Antique Tractor Magazine, May-June, 1996 issue

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