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Waterhouse Co.
Waterhouse Company, 1928-1950s; Webster, Massachusetts
Associated Builders
Judkins; Dudley Mfg. Corp.

During a short custom body building history of a little less than six years, Webster, Massachusetts’ Waterhouse Company turned out close to 300 custom and semi-custom automobile bodies. Unfortunately, less than 20 examples are known to survive.

According to their original announcement in Autobody, the Waterhouse Company was established in January, 1928 "to build bodies for duPont". That was the hope; but it took some six months to materialize. Two longtime Judkins employees, Charles L. Waterhouse (1870-1953) and his son, Moses Sargent Waterhouse (1892-1977) ("Mose" was named after his maternal grandfather Moses Sargent) set out on their own in January of 1928 to form the Waterhouse Company.

Charles Sr. was born Merrimac, Massachusetts in 1870 and had apprenticed at a number of Merrimac and Amesbury, Massachusetts carriage shops where he became an accomplished trimmer - the person who makes and installs the carpets, seats, cabinets, upholstery and convertible tops in an automobile. He was married to Isabel N. Sargent in 1891, and the pair produced 10 children, 3 of which would join the family’s firm in one manner or another  - L. Osborne (Oz) and Mose as owners/employees and Charles L. Jr. as a contributing designer. Two other sons - Alvie Raymond and Harold M. - did not follow in their father’s footsteps.

Charles L. Sr. had worked for many years as superintendent of Judkins’ final assembly department while his eldest son, Mose, ran Judkins upholstery shop. Two younger Waterhouse brothers, Charles L., Jr. (1901-1990), and L. Osborne (Oz), (1900-1982) had also worked at Judkins before going on to other firms. Charles Sr. had left Judkins in the mid twenties to work for Boston’s Cadillac dealer running its body repair and upholstery shop while L. Osborne served as superintendent of the Woonsocket Manufacturing Company of Providence, Rhode Island.

Woonsocket had been building production bodies for DuPont and other small car manufacturers as well as a few commercial vehicle and taxi­cab bodies for regional concerns. Unfortunately an over ambitious expansion into the bus business forced them into bankruptcy for the second and final time. L. Osborne and his father wished to purchase Woonsocket’s assets and start their own firm.

In 1927, Roger Clapp, a fund manager at Boston’s Stone and Webster, and a Harvard Business School graduate, and his out-of-work former college roommate, S. Roberts (Bob) Dunham, sent out letters indicating their desire to purchase an on-going manufacturing firm. Charles L. Waterhouse Sr. became aware of Clapp and Dunham’s search for a business to acquire through a neighbor active in Framingham’s Chamber of Commerce. Waterhouse contacted the two young Boston investors, and a financing deal was drawn up where Dunham, an accountant, would handle the business end of the firm and Waterhouse would run the factory, with Clapp and Dunham retaining a majority of the stock. Charles L. Waterhouse was elected president and it was decided to name the firm The Waterhouse Company, in tribute to the Waterhouse family’s long association with coachbuilding. In time, the other three founders, L. Osborne Waterhouse, Roger Clapp and S. Robert Dunham, would also serve as president.

The defunct Narragansett Avenue body-building firm’s assets were purchased at auction and moved 35 miles northwest to a vacant building in Webster, Massachusetts, a small town 16 miles south of Worcester. Roger Clapp and Charles L. Waterhouse kept their respective jobs in Boston while S. Roberts Dunham and L. Osborne Waterhouse organized, set-up and ran the plant.

A short time later an order for 200 small wooden boat hulls was received, not exactly the type of work they’d hoped for, but wooden boat building was akin to coach building and Waterhouse wasn’t the first custom body firm to turn to nautical pursuits during lean times. For the same reason, Waterhouse also offered their automotive refinishing and collision expertise to the residents of Webster.

When the new firm got up and running six months later, Roger Clapp and Charles Sr. left their Boston jobs and moved to Webster to give the business their full attention. Moses Sargent Waterhouse, a widower with two small children, was still working as a foreman at Judkins when his father put together the Waterhouse Co. in late 1927 Although he hoped that his father’s new venture succeeded, he also was concerned about his family, and was unwilling to join the partnership at first. In early 1928, he traveled to Dearborn, Michigan and interviewed for a job with the Ford Motor Company. Unfortunately, the money offered was insufficient to relocate, so he agreed to oversee the upholstery shop in his family’s Webster plant. Following the firm's incorporation in January of 1928, Mose joined the family's business. However he was hired only as an employee, not a partner, and had no financial responsibility (or liability) in the enterprise.

In 1969, S. Robert Dunham recalled the sacrifices made by the firm’s new owners:

“During the years that we made custom automobile bodies, at no time did we attain the degree of affluence enjoyed by most of our distinguished competitors. Many of them drove around in beautiful examples of their own coachwork mounted on expensive chassis.”

“All four of us lived in modest rented homes. With the exception of Charles Waterhouse, who did not own an automobile, we three younger members of the team drove Model A Fords. These were the years when we were trying to master, for the first time, the problems of running a business. One was trying to keep enough money in the bank to meet each week's payroll!”

“Waterhouse had many problems during these early months. One was establishing credit with their supply houses. The banker who had helped Waterhouse purchase the factory on terms was a man of few words and let­ters. So he gave us a batch of bank stationery and we wrote and typed, for his signature, letters ex­tolling the financial responsibility and sterling merit of the new concern”.

“Then with some income from the body-repair and boat-building jobs, a good designer and established credit, we could now train our guns on duPont Motors.”

George Briggs Weaver, (1884-1965) Waterhouse’s primary body designer, was born in 1884 and descended from a family of Newport, Rhode Island silversmiths. He studied jewelry design at the Rhode Island School of Design and upon graduation secured a job with the famous silversmiths, Gorham Manufacturing Co. in nearby Providence. Although no evidence exists today, Brigg’s father supposedly manufactured an automobile from the family’s hardware store during the early part of the century. Called the Weaver, it was one of the hundreds of assembled automobiles that proliferated during that time. When his father died unexpectedly, he took a leave of absence from Gorham and returned home to take over his father’s Newport hardware store. Shortly thereafter, a fire destroyed the business and Briggs returned to Gorham designing tools and automatic-machinery.

Starting in 1926, he began to design automobile bodies for the Woonsocket Mfg. Co. which was also located in Providence. When Waterhouse purchased Woonsocket’s assets, Weaver offered his services to the new Webster, Massachusetts firm. At about the same time that E. Paul duPont contracted with Waterhouse to produce their first series of bodies, he also hired Weaver to oversee the engineering department at duPont Motors in Wilmington, Delaware. Weaver’s contract with duPont allowed him to continue to design bodies for Waterhouse on an as-needed basis.

When duPont took over the Indian Motorcycle Company in Springfield, Massachusetts, in 1930, duPont’s engineering department moved to the new plant and he was able to visit the Waterhouse factory more frequently. When the production of duPont automobiles ceased in 1931, Weaver was appointed chief engineer at the Indian plant where he remained until his retirement. Weaver is credited with the legendary streamlined motorcycle designs that became a hallmark of Indian style in the 1940s.

Weaver came out of retirement to work for Briggs Cunningham’s sports car manufacturing company from 1950 to 1955. He was Cunningham’s Supervisor of Engineering during the period when Briggs was competing at LeMans and building his Cunningham Sports Cars. When Briggs switched to Jaguar D-Types Cunningham designed an independent rear suspension to replace the Jaguar D-Type’s live axle.

G. Briggs Weaver's son, George, drove his Maserati V8R1 at the 1951 Watkins Glen Grand Prix and a factory Cunningham in 1952’s event. In 1951, the younger Weaver had served as the Cunningham Team's relief driver at LeMans and also drove for the factory Jowettt Jupiter race team. The younger Weaver was instrumental in re-designing the Watkins Glen road course for the 1953 race, and his treasured Maserati V8R1 "Poison Lil" remains in the family.

Weaver retired for the second time and spent the rest of his days designing sailboats and tinkering with his Connecticut race car collection at his private Thompson, Connecticut race course - two hobbies he had enjoyed most of his life. He passed away in 1965 at the age of 81.

While superintendent of Woonsocket, L. Osborne (Oz) Waterhouse had overseen the manufacture of duPont’s production bodies and now that the Webster, Massachusetts plant was up and running, he arranged for Waterhouse to get a portion of their business. Coincidentally, Woonsocket’s body designer, George Briggs Weaver, was also working for Waterhouse, so it was only logical that duPont would continue the arrangement with the new firm.

E. Paul duPont, owner and president of duPont Motors of Wilmington, Delaware made a 1928 visit to Webster with duPont’s general manager, Mr. Hosely, to make a preliminary inspection of the new custom-body builder.

Dunham continues his story:

“Before his arrival we all visited the barber and local shoe-shine parlor. The man we soon met for the first time looked as though he had slept in his suit and had not sat in a barber's chair for weeks! At first a little reticent, he soon warmed up and turned out to be a most democratic and likeable multimillionaire. We had been tipped off in advance that he enjoyed a good salty story. So, one of our number with a vast collection, unlimbered a few of his favorites. This, un­questionably, had something to do with making his visit more enjoyable and our "situation" more favor­able.”

“Before long we had our first order for five roadsters and five convertible coupes.”

Waterhouse produced large number of bodies for duPont in 1929 and 1930 - duPont factory records indicate that Waterhouse built a total of 82 bodies for duPont chassis in a wide variety of styles. A one-off duPont speedster was made for silent movie star Douglas Fairbanks (Sr.) that was built without any doors, allowing Fairbanks to replicate one of his famous swashbuckling leaps whenever he got into the driver’s seat.

The March 1930 issue of Vanity Fair included a two-page feature "illustrating a few cars from the automobile show repre­sentative of current body trends." One of the cars illustrated was a Waterhouse Victoria pictured on a duPont chassis. Waterhouse enjoyed "A Recognized Repu­tation for Smart Sport Models" according to their advertising in the Salon supplements.

After getting their first order from duPont, Waterhouse found that getting the next one was by no means an easy task. Name recognition and a reputation based on a prior history of craftsmanship were two areas where their competition had an advantage over the new firm. Clapp and Dunham took turns making the rounds of New York, Michigan and Indiana’s auto manufacturers: Franklin, Pierce-Arrow, Chrysler, Lincoln, Packard, Marmon and Stutz. The presented sheaves of Weaver’s designs as well as multiple shots of the two bodies they were currently building for duPont. As Dunham put it, “It was discouraging... no one was impressed… no one had ever heard of Waterhouse.”

A fellow Harvard Class of ‘21 graduate, named Serge Daniloff (1898-1984), had kept in touch with Roger Clapp throughout the twenties, and was aware of his involvement in Waterhouse. Daniloff was a car guy and had made his way through the ranks of Packard Motor Co. to an executive position in the firm’s export division. His boss, a Mr. Ford, needed someone to build a body for use at Packard’s stand at the 1930 Paris Salon.  Ford had a photograph of a Packard Coupe Cabriolet that had recently won the Grand Prize at the Monaco Concours d’Elegance. It was a convertible coupe that had been built by the Brussels coachbuilder Carrosserie Van den Plas in 1928 for exhibition at the Paris Auto Saloon to a design attributed to “Count”Alexis de Sakhnoffsky, their in-house designer.  Its blind-quarter Victoria style can be traced back to a fixed-roof coupe built in France sometime in 1926.

The October 1927 issue of Omnia, a popular French automotive magazine, showed a four-place cabriolet body on a 9CV Peugeot chassis. Gaston Grummer & Cie, showed a convertible Victoria on a 15 CV Renault chassis, and the Brussels coachbuilder, D’Ieteren Freres, built an example on a Minerva chassis during 1928. So by 1929, it was already an established style on the Continent, and a number of Europe’s major coachbuilders, including Graber, Erdmann & Rossi and Hibbard & Darrin had built variations of it.

The Van den Plas Packard in Ford’s photograph had recently won the Grand Prize at the 1929 Monaco Concours d’Elegance and it’s more than likely that a European Packard distributor had sent him the picture. The design of the new body was innovative, combining the virtues of a five-passenger coupe with a roadster - producing an extremely elegant all-weather convertible with seating for five. So appealing was the design that Packard’s Mr. Ford wanted a duplicate built for Packard’s new 745 chassis that was scheduled to debut at the 1930 Salon de l'Auto in Paris. However, only seven weeks remained before the car needed to be shipped to France in time for its September debut.

A number of leading custom body builders were contacted by Ford, but none of them wanted to take on the assignment on such short notice - it normally took ten to twelve weeks for a busy shop to turn out a sample body from a new design. LeBaron’s Hugo Pfau confirmed the story, acknowledging that Packard had approached LeBaron with the rush project, and had been turned down.

Serge Daniloff worked under Mr. Ford at the time, and suggested to him that a Harvard friend of his (Roger Clapp) who was also in the custom body business might be able to help them out. As Waterhouse was a new outfit, the pair assumed that they would probably bend over backwards to get the Packard finished in time. They were right. When Daniloff got in touch with Waterhouse, Clapp immediately boarded a train to New York City in order to finalize the deal. He returned to Webster the next day with the order and a small photograph of the Van den Plas “model”.

As it turned out, the Convertible Victoria body that resulted was a major improvement to the Van den Plas design, rather than just a copy of it. The molding treatment that Briggs Weaver came up with was simpler and made the car seem even longer and lower. The top was as low as possible, and featured landau joints inside the passenger compartment, rather than outside, on the rear quarters. It was an idea that Walter M. Murphy had only recently adopted, and helped contribute to the novel appearance of the Waterhouse creation, somewhat distancing it from the original European design.

Many years later S. Robert Dunham recalled Waterhouse’s first Packard commission:

“Briggs Weaver gave us everything he had in de­signing a similar body, with lines and proportions as attractive as possible. He designed a trunk with round lines-a trunk made just like the body, with aluminum applied over a wood frame.

“A six-foot man would be limited to wearing a cap in the car! The molding treatment was Weaver's work, not a part of the original design in the snapshot. The windshield pillars were of manganese bronze with a wide base which became part of the cowl construction. With this construction, it was possible to have the aluminum body surface applied continuously on the cowl and right up the pillar without a break. This feature became characteristic of practically all Water­house bodies.

“With all hands working nights and weekends, the custom Packard was finished two days ahead of schedule! A driver was sent up by Packard to drive the car over the road to New York. Roger Clapp went along as a passenger.

“The driver was under instructions to call Mr. Ford along the route. After making the call, the driver re­ported to Roger that he had been given a sort of "third degree" questioning about how the body looked, the quality of the workmanship and whether there were any squeaks, rattles, etc.

“It was dark when the car finally rolled slowly through the door of the New York Packard plant. The driver had been told to take the car to the service area and get it on the wash rack. Roger noticed a pair of headlights just behind them as they came to a stop. Two men emerged from this car just behind our new convertible Victoria and began to examine it with con­siderable interest. They asked many questions before finally introducing themselves.

“One was Alvin McCauley, president of the Pack­ard Motor Car Co. and the other was Mr. Lee East­man, president of New York Packard. They asked Roger to be in Mr. Eastman's office the next morning.

“We had not expected to get any domestic busi­ness from this sample body of a new design. The style, we felt, with only one pair of side windows for five passengers, was almost unknown in the U.S. at that time.

“However, by noon the next day Roger called us to say that he had an order for ten duplicates for do­mestic sale! But we still didn't know whether the car would go to the Paris Salon.

“Mr. Ford soon informed us - after examining his personal project in more detail - that he was planning to put the car on the boat for Paris.

“The domestic order was the first of many such ten-unit orders to follow, as the style sold very well for a period of two years. For the Packard Motors Ex­port Corp. we built several duplicates for display in shows in Madrid and Milan.

“These foreign showings brought us additional orders from abroad for the same style of body. We do not have complete records available, but we prob­ably made nearly 100 of these convertible Victorias for Packard before we submitted an "improved" model.

So successful was the Convertible Victoria design that Waterhouse obtained orders for scores of duplicate bodies from both Chrysler and Lincoln. Within a year, many of the other domestic custom body builders, especially Dietrich, LeBaron and Rollston were building copies of it, one factor that contributed to the decline in Waterhouse’s custom body business during the next two years.

Autobody magazine described the Paris Salon’s Packard Convertible Coupe (the Convertible Victoria moniker came later) in great detail in their October, 1929 issue: 

“On a Packard custom chassis of 145 ½ -in. wheelbase, the Waterhouse Co. has mounted an exceedingly good-looking convertible coupe of 4/5-passenger capacity, all passengers being housed within the en­closure. The car is effectively finished in aluminum and black, the latter being used for the chassis, moldings, saddle panels and upper-works. The top is a light-gray Burbank. A large trunk at the rear is covered with aluminum of the same gage as the body and conforms to the general lines of the design; chromium-plated deck irons protect the surface when the top is lowered; a trunk rack, of cast aluminum, is also specially de­signed. The visor is covered with the same Burbank as the top and is adjustable by means of slip quadrants and wing nuts.

“The overall height of this Packard coupe is only 66 in., ample head and leg room for rear passengers being provided by sinking the floor between the chas­sis members. The front seats are both adjustable and have folding backs. This style of body, with all passen­gers housed inside, calls for unusually wide doors; these are 41 in. wide and are consequently hung on extra-heavy hinges and have diagonal steel bracing. The door latches are operated by two controls, a lever for the rear-seat passengers and a recessed, rotary, remote control for the front passengers.

“All the interior hardware was especially designed by the Waterhouse Co. Fitments include a Visolite cigar lighter which is installed on the right side of the rear seat. At each end of the instrument board a small cabinet is provided for gloves or parcels. The interior is trimmed with gray Colonial-grain leather and has a carpet of the same color. Recessed flap pockets are positioned in each side convenient to the rear-seat passengers. A shield, outlined below a wide belt, decorates the door panels.

“Aft of the door pillars, there are leather protection flaps on the belt rail where the top is not permanently fastened. The outside frame of the back window is also covered with leather, and the top envelope is similarly trimmed.

The top does not differ essentially from those for similar bodies but was designed to fold compactly as will be seen in one of the accompanying illustra­tions; there are two reading lights installed in the rear bow and nickel-silver plates reinforce the corners; ball-end wing studs on the windshield pillars insure a solid junction when the top is up.

“The windshield pillars are of manganese bronze and are covered with sheet aluminum which is a continuation of the aluminum forming the cowl; this construction eliminates the chance of paint breaking at the joint.

While the Packard was being built, Briggs Weaver had also adapted the design for use by duPont, and a similar body was completed  in time for the New York Salon in December of 1929, which was some two months later than the Paris Salon. Along with a duPont Town Car, that duPont Convertible Victoria made up the first New York Salon display by Water­house.

Autobody magazine reported on the duPonts exhibited at the 1930 New York Auto Salon:

“Other new exhibits at New York will include bodies built by Merrimac and Waterhouse on the duPont chassis, after designs of the duPont body department. Merrimac will present a four-passenger ‘speedster’ of extremely sporting character finished completely in gray, except the wheels and bumpers, which will be in scarlet. The Waterhouse Co. will show a town car of interesting design, finished in sable, but with the wheels, bumpers and recessed door-belt panel in ivory which will also be used for the striping. The body sides are carried down to the running boards, and swept up to meet the cowl molding at the dash.”

Waterhouse also built a few convertible roadster bodies on Chrysler and Pierce-Arrow chassis that were modeled after a series-built LeBaron body built for Packard during 1930. One of them, a Convertible Coupe built on a Pierce-Arrow chassis, appeared on the Waterhouse stand at the 1931 New York Salon (held in Dec of 1930).

It featured a semi-disappearing top which folded into a deep well located behind the front seat, and could be covered with boot so that it lay flush with the tops of the doors when folded. The new flush-stowing top design was immediately adapted by Weaver to Waterhouse’s Convertible Victorias which had been in production for the past year. Weaver was an engineer as well as an artist, and his 1930 redesign of the massive Victoria top helped establish him as one of the true greats in auto body engineering. In its final incar­nation, it folded neatly into a compact unit that lay completely horizon­tal at the belt line when lowered. Brewster achieved a similar feat a few years later with its own version for the Rolls-Royce Phantom II, called the Croydon. Waterhouse’s S. Robert Dunham estimated that 20 of the new “improved” model were eventually built for Packard.

At the 1931 New York Auto Salon, Waterhouse placed two ads of its own in the souvenir program. One filled a page with two- and four-door convertible body styles, with illustrations by Weaver. Both ads showed coachwork on Pierce-Arrow and Packard chassis.

During 1930, Stutz and Chrysler also signed contracts with Waterhouse. Only two bodies are known to have been built for the Indianapolis automaker, but in an interview conducted in 1969, Mose Waterhouse recalled that 120 custom bodies were delivered to the Chrysler Corporation by his company. Even though Mose’s numbers likely include orders placed directly by dealers and factory branches - in addition to true factory orders - they appear far too high to be treated seriously.

Published listings provided by Chrysler indicate that during the three-year lifespan of the Series CG and CL (1931-33) only 106 chassis were released to coachbuilders other than LeBaron. It’s doubtful that Waterhouse got 100% of the available chassis considering that Locke, Derham, Murphy and at least four European coachbuilders are known to have built bodies on the Imperial CG and CL as well.  Using production totals supplied by S. Robert Dunham, one of the firm’s directors, the number of Waterhouse-bodied Chryslers is probably less than half the figure quoted by Mose Waterhouse. Most Chrysler historians claim an even lower number and Larry Waterhouse - grandson of the firm's founder Charles L. - estimates the number to be 31 with at least 3 Waterhouse-bodied Chrysler Imperials surviving.

Dunham estimated that 120 bodies were built for Packard while Larry Waterhouse reports the number is most likely 131. It is an accepted fact that 82 bodies were supplied to duPont, and the total number built for Lincoln totals 40 - Seven unspecified bodies for the Model L chassis, thirty-three for the Model K chassis; five Sport Sedans with rear deck, one Dual Cowl Phaeton, one Sport Coupe, one Sport Sedan and twenty-five Convertible Victorias. Additionally, Waterhouse built smaller quantities for a number of other makes. Thirty-one bodies were built for Chrysler, two for Marmon, two for Stutz and three for Pierce-Arrow plus single bodies for Cadillac, Cord (HAF Special) and Rolls-Royce,  Dunham placed Waterhouse’s grand total at about 300, but unfortunately all of Waterhouse’s records were destroyed when Webster's French River overflowed its banks in 1936 and 1955, so we can safely assume the number is somewhere between Dunham's 300 and Larry Waterhouse's more recent estimate of 296.

Duesenberg historian Fred Roe has seen drawings for bodies on both Maybach and Duesenberg chassis but they were likely just styling exercises, not renderings destined for manufacture. The Duesenberg rendering, currently in the possession of Larry Waterhouse is for a 6-window sedan, and he agrees with Roe that it's doubtful that the car was ever built.

According to Roger Clapp, Mrs. Walter P. Chrysler – who had a summer house on Cape Cod - once visited the Webster plant to look into the possibility of getting Waterhouse to build her a custom body for a new Imperial chassis. 

After the design and trim were ironed out, Mrs. Chrysler was asked when she would like to take delivery of the car. She replied: "How about a week from tomorrow?" As a typical Waterhouse body took about 2 months to complete, it’s doubtful that her body was ever built. However it is a certainty that her son, Walter P. Chrysler, Jr., was instrumental in getting Waterhouse a couple of semi-custom orders for the Imperial chassis, one was a close-coupled 4-door convertible for his own use that was built on a 145" 1931 Imperial chassis.

The March 1932 issue of Autobody featured a small picture of an unusual Waterhouse-bodied 1931 Imperial CG, short-wheelbase (129”) speedster exhibited at the New York Salon:

"From the point of view of exterior finish, no car was more unusual than the Chrysler speedster by Waterhouse. This car was finished in an iridescent copper-colored lacquer, with a result that is individual, to say the least. The body itself was of the very sportiest nature, with a low, sharply inclined windshield, I believe welded to the main body, since it seemed to be an integral part of the cowl itself There was a door on the near side only, but the driver's side was cut low enough so that stepping in was a simple matter. The leather trimmings, including a wide elbow-rest on each side, were in a medium green as was the chassis."

Lincoln commissioned Waterhouse to build a small run of bodies for its new Model K chassis starting in 1930 and helped to fill the void created when duPont stopped manufacturing automobiles a year later. In the final two years of the salons, 1931 and 1932, more Waterhouse bodies would grace Lincoln chassis than those of any other single coachbuilder. In fact, at the February 1932 Chicago Salon, the only car displayed by Waterhouse was a single Lincoln K with a Convertible Victoria body.

The 1933 Lincoln KB Salon Body catalog included a profile of the Waterhouse Convertible Victoria body:

“This five-passenger coupe of convertible type reveals lines of con­tinental smartness. A low, rakish appearing sport car, it appeals particularly to those desiring a car which can be quickly converted from a dashing open phaeton into a snugly enclosed Victoria. The top folds down neatly to rest on a level with the body. Front seats are of the bucket type, adjustable and very comfortable. Doors are unusually wide, permitting easy access to the rear seat. An unusu­ally large metal chest finished in the body color is fitted at the rear. Spare wheels and tires are carried in fender wells.”

Another Convertible Victoria on Lincoln chassis was described three years earlier in the December 1929 issue of Autobody:

“The Waterhouse Lincoln Victoria, which is being exhibited at the Automobile Salon at the Commodore Hotel, is a smart two-passenger coupe of convertible type, revealing lines now in vogue on the Continent. It is one of 16 fine cars being shown at the Salon by eight of the country's leading custom coach builders on the Lincoln 145-inch chassis. Similar Waterhouse types have been highly popular at recent European Salons, including la Concours d'Elegance Internationale.

“This Lincoln model is a low rakish appearing sport car, appealing particularly to those desiring a car which can be quickly converted from a dashing open tourer into a chummy enclosed Victoria. The top folds down neatly to rest on a level with the body.

“The front seats are of the bucket type, adjustable and very comfortable. Doors are unusually wide, per­mitting easy access to the rear seat. Two corner lights, attached to the rear top bow, are operated by a switch forward of the mar seat arm rest. An ash re­ceiver is located conveniently on each side of the rear seat.

“A large metal chest finished in the smart body color is fitted at the rear. Two spare wheels and tires are carried in fender wells. Although essentially a two-passenger coupe, owners of this Lincoln may carry extra passengers in the rear seat.

“The Salon model is finished in Granada Jade gray with moulding, wheels and chassis in Sonora green. Trim is of flat Bedford cord.

Although Waterhouse is remembered today mainly because of their gorgeous Convertible Victorias, they also produced a number of other series-built styles for Chrysler, duPont, Lincoln and Packard. The most popular were their fixed roof and convertible coupes, but a number of Phaetons, Sports Sedans and Town Cars were built as well. The first car Waterhouse ever exhibited at a Salon was a black duPont Town Car they displayed at the 1929 New York Salon. Another Town Car was built for millionaire philanthropist and real estate heir, William Rhinelander Stewart on a sixteen-cylinder 1930 Cadillac chassis. However, their most outrageous Town car was a magnificent Rolls-Royce Phantom I, built for the eccentric millionaire H.C. (Harry) Orndorff.

The Car was prominently featured in the September, 1929 issue of Autobody:

“Town Car by Waterhouse on Rolls-Royce Chassis: A Car of Pleasing Proportions with Unusual Features Many of Which were Specified by the Owner

“This interesting town car was recently completed by the Waterhouse Co., custom-body builders of Webster, Mass., and delivered to H. C. Orndorff of Providence, R.I. Its pleasing proportions are in keeping with the dignity of the Rolls-Royce chassis and the difficult cowling problem has been happily solved. Molding treatment is in the current mode, and the front and rear of the car have received some designing attention as will be noted in the views below. The front valance is readily removable by unscrewing a wing nut on each side; these two wing nuts, with dowels at the back of the valance hold it securely in place. The trunk at the rear was specially designed to have its lines conform with those of the back molding. The car is mounted on a lengthened Phantom chassis and has a wheelbase of 160 in. which gave an oppor­tunity for a roomy body and the seating of the pass­engers forward of the rear axle. The fenders have the characteristic Rolls-Royce section, but .they ha\7e been lengthened and changed at the running board, which is of walnut with strips of rubber let into it, and bound on three sides with a nickeled brass molding.

“Body Panels Extend Below Chassis

“The cowl and body panels are carried down to the running board, but the bottoms of the doors are only a few inches below the chassis level. Under the rear doors are removable panels which provide access to the rear springs. For the all-weather front, there is a special roof section which is attached by ball-end wing nuts; thick sponge rubber in the solid top presses against an oval molding in the front of the partition and makes a waterproof junction without the neces­sity of a finish molding. In addition to the solid top, there is a standard canopy top which is carried in the car, in case of sudden rain while it is operated as a town car. In the center of the division header is an opera light with the owner's crest etched in the red glass. The front doors have removable headers which when in place give them the same appearance as the rear doors. Heavy bus hinges are used on all the doors. The small leather-covered panel in the rear quarter is a ventilating panel; it is hinged along the front edge and the operating mechanism, except the handle, is concealed on the inside.

“The car is finished in two shades of dark blue, the body being in Bennington Blue and the small -door panels above the belt in Ridge Blue. The top leather matches the darker shade. The front compartment is trimmed in a similar dark-blue leather. Recessed re­mote controls operate the latches, and three-quarter-­turn quick-action regulators control the windows of the front doors.

“Unusual Interior Equipment

“Interior equipment is chiefly the selection of the owner, an observant motorist of long experience, whose specifications represent what he felt was necessary ­for him in the perfect car. The rear doors and the division are equipped with walnut shutters, in addition to the usual glass. The shutters are operated by crank regulators similar to those for the glass. The posi­tioning of these fittings form the motif for the decora­tion of the door panels. A toggle door pull is pro­vided and broadlace harmonizing with the seat uphol­stery is used across the doors and partition in place of the usual wood friezes. Instead of the customary toggle, an assist handle covered with leather is pro­vided on the door-hinge pillar. A cord hat or parcel rack is attached to the ceiling and an electric fan is mounted on the division header. The three switches just aft of the ventilating panel control the fan, dome­light and corner reading lights. Lamps set in the pillars illumine the entrance automatically when either front or rear doors are open.

“On the right side - not showing in the photograph - is the transmitter of the chauffeur's phone concealed under the side lining, but having the usual group of embroidered holes over the transmitter. The loud speaker is of the flush type and is mounted in the left-­hand front door at the chauffeur's shoulder, connec­tions being run through spring contacts in the door pillar. This positions the loud speaker much nearer than when mounted on the instrument board and less conspicuously than when in the front of the partition.

“The reading lights in corners of the rear compart­ment are of the sconce type with the socket projecting at the bottom of an ornamental plate which includes a concave reflector. Fairly powerful translucent bulbs are used; the protecting shield is made of the same material as the rear curtains and bound with blue velvet. If a particularly bright reading light is de­sired, the shields can be turned to one side, and with the division shutter up, no annoyance is experienced from the lights of approaching cars. The back window is fitted with a Rawlings lift so as to provide adequate ventilation in hot weather.

“The passengers are seated slightly forward of the axle in fauteuils trimmed with a Schumacher imported cut velvet in dark blue and tan. Loose down cushions are provided for both the seats and the backs of these chairs. The lining is a deluxe broadcloth which is also used for the auxiliary seats and for the flap pockets that are installed on the partition when the auxiliary seats are not carried. The special set of slip covers made at the time the car was built, is shown in one of the accompanying views which also illustrates the interesting door panel. Although there is the usual carpet on the floor of this compartment, above it has been placed an Oriental rug that just fits the space. This Oriental touch is supplemented by the use of stuffed saddle bags for footrests.

“Another interior of the Waterhouse town car showing the special slip covers for summer use and the interesting door trim and Placement of regulator handles for window and shutter

“Removable Auxiliary Seats

“The auxiliary seats represent a departure that has often beep urged with respect to these units. They are entirely removable and when not in use, are re­placed by large flap pockets that fit tightly against the partition and cover the socket fittings of the auxiliary seats. The castings for the auxiliary seats were spe­cial and comprise V-type male and female fittings, af­fording a wedge-tight fit. The flap pockets have a stiff back to which are attached wooden male fittings that go into the same sockets as the auxiliary seats. Though this body presents an array of unusual fea­tures, all are of a practical character and meet needs that the owner had encountered in the course of a long experience in town and country driving.

“An all-weather town car built by the Waterhouse Co., of Webster, Mass., on a lengthened Rolls-Royce chassis for H. C. Orndorff, of Providence, R. I. The long sweep of the fenders suggests the power and dignity of the chassis. The difficult cowling problem on the Rolls has been cleverly solved in this design. Belt treatment is in accordance with the current vogue. The opera light on the front face of the partition panel has the owner's crest etched in red glass. The ventilating panel in the rear quarter is hinged at the front.

“Another view of the Orndorff town car with driving compartment enclosed for inclement weather. This body was designed and mounted by the Waterhouse Co. on a 160-in. Rolls-Royce chassis. A roof section for the driving compartment carries out per­fectly the line of the roof; however, for sudden emergencies, a special canopy is carried under the seat. The body panels are carried down to the running board and the doors a few inches below the level of the chassis. Access to the rear springs is pro­vided by a removable panel under the rear doors

“Interior view of the Orndorff town car by Waterhouse.

“The fauteuils in the rear are trimmed with a Schumacher imported cut velvet in dark blue and tan and have loose down seat and back Cushions, and a silk fringe at the bottom. In addition to the regular carpet, there is an Oriental rug that exactly fits the rear compartment. Stuffed saddle bags serve as footrests in place of the usual hassocks. In the view at the left will be noted the back window, which is controlled by a Rawlings regulator, and the partly open ventilator panel in the rear quarter. A blue broadlace is used across the door and partition, in­stead of the more common wood frieze. Two removable emergency seats are provided which are anchored in the partition by tapered male and female joints. When not needed, they are replaced by large flap pockets which have a stiff back and an attaching lug that fits into the seat socket of the partition. One seat and one pocket are shown in position. The driving compartment is interesting for the treatment of the door panels, the recessed remote-control handles for the door and the large cranks of the quick-acting, three-quarter-turn window lifts.

Mose (M. Sargent Waterhouse) carried out most of the work on the interior of the Orndorff car and recalled that Waterhouse made very little on the $6,000 project. Charles L. Waterhouse Jr. recalled the vehicle in a 1972 interview:

“My father suggested as a joke that a fireplace would be comfortable in a Waterhouse body and, wouldn't you know it, Mr. Orndorff went for the idea.”

The plans for the Rolls included the fireplace, but it was exchanged for a radio when Orndorff decided there was no other place to install it.

Waterhouse continued:

“On his stationery he would never have his address, only the longitude and latitude in degrees. This was his address. He had four of his friend’s mail letters to him with this type of address. Only one letter ever reached him because the postman recognized his name, and knew where he lived.”

At the 1931 New York Auto Salon, Waterhouse placed two ads of its own in the souvenir program. One filled a page with two- and four-door convertible body styles, with illustrations by Weaver. Both ads showed coachwork on Pierce-Arrow and Packard chassis.

The December 1930 issue of Autobody described the 2 cars in greater detail:

"The Waterhouse Co. will have two new exhibits in the New York Salon. One will be a 5-passenger convertible Victoria, with disappearing top on 145-in. Packard chassis. It will be finished entirely in black, with ivory striping on the molding. The top is of Bur­bank and the seats are trimmed with Velveau tan leather in diamond tufts, A Visolite cigar lighter and two ash receptacles are provided in the rear, and two reading lights are set in the corners of the wide rear bow. In addition to a folding trunk rack, there is a large aluminum trunk of special design."

"The other new Waterhouse exhibit will be a convertible coupe, with disappearing top and rumble seat. It is mounted on Pierce-Arrow chassis and is finished in two shades of gray, with black moldings and wheels; gold striping is used on both moldings and wheels and there is a small green recessed door panel above the molding. The top is of light-gray Burbank and the seats are trimmed with gray Colonial-grain leather. This car has un­usually wide main doors and a small door on the right side to give easy access to the rumble."

Two huge Marmon phaetons were built for Col. E. Parmalee Prentice in 1932. Prentice was a well-known Chicago lawyer who had the good fortune to marry John D. Rockefeller’s daughter Alta. Built on a Sixteen cylinder extended wheelbase (from 146 ½ to 154 inches) chassis, both are seven-passenger tourings, one has a normal folding convertible top while the other features an all-weather, permanent California top and are 2 of the 3 custom bodies known to have been built on the Marmon Sixteen chassis.

In a 1969 interview Mose (M. Sargent Waterhouse) recalled that the two Marmons were the last full custom bodies completed by Waterhouse, and their elongated chassis resulted in an awkward-looking body that nobody at Waterhouse was very happy about. Prentice also insisted that special hubcaps be affixed that did not carry the Marmon logo as he was against advertising anyone else's products.

These two Marmons are the very same cars that originated the well-known story of the re-calibrated speedometer in the backseat. The cars were used on the family's 1,250-acre summer estate, Mount Hope Farm, located outside of Williamstown, Massachusetts. As the speed limit on the huge Prentice estate was 25 mph, and that speed was strictly enforced by Col. Prentice via the duplicate speedometer in the rear compartment, his crafty chauffeur arranged to have Waterhouse recalibrate the rear speedometer so that it would read 25 mph when the car was actually traveling at 35 mph.

Remarkably both cars still exist, the touring is privately owned while the California top-equipped car is still owned by the Rockefeller family an can be seen at Winthrop Rockefeller’s Petit Jean Mountain Museum in Arkansas.

The Prentices had ten custom-built American Classics as Colonel Prentice was opposed to owning any vehicle made outside of the country.  The Prentices owned a number of estates which included the Rockefeller Mansion on W. 53rd Street in New York City, the Mount Hope Farm, San Francisco, the Lake Mohonk Mountain House in Ulster County, New York and their Bennington, Vermont home.

In the same interview, Mose recalled several offers from rival custom body builders to buy him away from Waterhouse - all of which he turned down. The most attractive proposition came from General Motors, who called him to Detroit to discuss his taking charge of the proposed­ expansion of its custom-body production at Fisher and Fleetwood. However, the Depression and its effect on the custom car market, made GM give up the idea of a bona-fide custom body division.

He also told of an unusual request from a "gangster" who wanted a plate-glass mirror installed diagonally between the floor of the back seat and the back of the limousine parti­tion. The order included the customary hidden compartments, gun racks and bullet-proof glass and he theorized that it may have had something to do with the customer’s girlfriend, but whether it was actually installed remains a mystery as does its true purpose.

One detail found on most Waterhouse bodies was a clever adjustable outside windshield visor. The flat panels were covered with the same material used on the convertible tops and attached to the top of the windshield with piano hinges. Moveable brackets at either side enabled the angle of the visor to be adjusted to suit the driver depending on the position of the sun. Not quite as convenient as today’s inside visors, but an innovation for its time.

Charles L. Waterhouse Jr. (1901-1990), the son of Charles L. Waterhouse Sr. - founder of the Waterhouse Company - was also involved in coachbuilding for a number of years. One of 10 children, he had the good fortune to grow up in Merrimac, Massachusetts were he worked after school and Saturdays in the woodworking shops of the Judkins and Walker Body Companies. After High School, he studied design at Boston’s Wentworth Institute of Technology and completed Andrew F. Johnson’s course in automotive drafting and design. He moved to Rochester, New York in 1926 to take courses in design at the city’s Mechanics Institute (now RIT) and found part-time work at James C Cunningham, Sons, who at the time were one of the nation’s most prestigious builders of bespoke automobiles and funeral cars. He left to work for Ford Motor Company in 1928, as a draftsman in Lincoln’s Body Engineering Dept. After Harley Earl established GM’s Art & Colour Division, Waterhouse jumped ship to GM’s Fleetwood Division and worked there as a body engineer for 16 years.  After WWII, he took a position with the Ford Motor Company as the Operations Manager of their Styling Division. He later became a manager in Ford’s Engineering Department, where he remained until his retirement in 1964. He retired to his adopted home city of Dearborn, Michigan and passed away in 1990. 

In a 1972 interview with the Classic Car Club’s James Quinlan, Waterhouse recalled:

“Although I never officially worked for my folks, I must say I had some influence on style and design. From 1928 till 1933 I kept close correspondence with my folks and the chief engineer at Waterhouse. I submitted many design drawing proposals. Some of the features of my designs were selected to be produced for customers’ cars. Every summer I spent some time at the body works.”

For example, Waterhouse takes credit for the design of the duPont Speedster made for swashbuckler Douglas Fairbanks Sr. as well as helping to design their legendary Convertible Victorias that were built for Chrysler, duPont Lincoln, Packard and Stutz chassis. 

Waterhouse made the aerodynamic speedster body and fuel tanks for Harry A. Falt’s HAF Special, a Lycoming powered, L-29 Cord-derived front-wheel-drive special that was entered in, but failed to qualify for, the 1933 Indianapolis 500. They also built at least one glider as evidenced by a photograph in the collection of Larry Waterhouse showing Osborne's son Lewis at the controls.

As did most other Classic-Era coachbuilders, Waterhouse withdrew from the custom body business in the early thirties, 1933 to be exact. However, they continued to manufacture commercial vehicle bodies and trailers through the thirties and remained in business until 2003, albeit with a different name and product.

While researching an article, automotive historian Fred Roe discovered a photo of one of R. Buckminster Fuller’s Dymaxion cars in the possession of Moses Sargent Waterhouse’s daughter, Mrs. Sheldon. R. Buckminster Fuller was an architect and inventor who introduced a unique design - called Dymaxion - for mass producing a house using modem design and technology. Along with the Dymaxion house, Fuller developed an automobile along similar lines. Over a number of years, four prototypes were built at the former Locomobile plant in Bridgeport, Connecticut by W. Starling Burgess, a New England aircraft and yacht designer.

In the mid-thirties, the Waterhouse Co. was involved in creating parts and sub-assemblies for the Dymaxion project. The completed parts were delivered as contracted for, however Waterhouse was never paid for the work. Apparently the amount involved was significant enough that some “representatives” of the firm took over some Maine resort property owned by an officer of the Dymaxion enterprise. The property’s occupation was successful, and Waterhouse got paid. All that remains of the Waterhouse involvement with the Dymaxion is a photo of one of the cars.

Waterhouse built the squarish delivery car bodies for the 1939 Indian Traffic Car which was built in very limited numbers by duPont in Springfield, Massachusetts. A restored example is in the collection of the Motorcycle Hall of Fame Museum in Pickerington, Ohio and an un-restored Traffic Car can be found at the National Motorcycle Museum and Hall of Fame in Anamosa, Iowa

After the firm withdrew from custom body building, Waterhouse’s fabric and upholstery shop, still under Mose Waterhouse, obtained various contracts in order to keep the shops busy, and ended up making upholstered furniture. During WWII, Waterhouse manufactured a number of items for the military effort, garnering the coveted Army-Navy "E", efficiency award. After the war, Waterhouse expanded into the furniture business full time, eventually reorganizing as the Dudley Manufacturing Company, a name derived from a town neighboring Webster where an additional plant was established. The firm was subsequently acquired by Ethan Allen Inc. of Danbury, Connecticut and was closed down in 2003.

Charles L. Waterhouse Sr. retired soon after they withdrew from custom body building and remained in Webster, MA at his 9 Klebart Avenue home until 1953 when he passed away at the age of 84. Moses Sargent Waterhouse passed away in 1977, his brother Osborne in 1982 and Charles L Jr. in 1990.

Waterhouse Production

The total number of automobile bodies built by Waterhouse from 1928 through 1933 is estimated at 296 according to Larry Waterhouse, the grandson of Charles L. Waterhouse, one of the firm's founders.

Larry's father, Charles L. Waterhouse Jr., was the son of Charles L. Sr. Charles L. Jr. started his career with the Ford Motor Co. in 1926 working as a body engineer in the firm's drafting dept. He contributed some moulding and body glass designs to the Waterhouse Body Co. during his visits to Webster each summer.

As the original records of the firm were lost in when the French River overflowed its banks in 1936 and 1955, the total of 296 is an estimate derived from the records of the chassis manufacturers, personal recollections of former staff and research done by Fred Roe and other automotive historians.

For example, the 82 bodies built for duPont are taken directly from surviving duPont Co.'s records which list each chassis  shipped to Waterhouse.

Estimated Waterhouse automobile body production 1928-1933, listed by marque: 

duPont; 82 - Various Convertible Victorias, Convertible Coupes, Sedans, Roadsters, Town Cars and one Speedster.

Packard; 131 - One-hundred Convertible Victorias, twenty Convertible Victorias with the flush folding top and eleven Sport Sedans.

Chrysler; 31 - One 4-door Convertible (for Walter P Chrysler Jr.), thirty Convertible Victorias and Convertible Coupes (most with flush folding tops).  

Lincoln; 40 - Seven unspecified bodies for the Model L chassis, thirty-three for the Model K chassis; five Sport Sedans with rear deck, one Dual Cowl Phaeton, one Sport Coupe, one Sport Sedan and twenty-five Convertible Victorias. 

Pierce Arrow; 3 - One Convertible Victoria, one Convertible Coupe and one Sport Sedan.

Marmon; 2 - One 4-dr Convertible and one 4-dr Phaeton - both for Col. Prentice

Stutz; 2 - One Convertible Victoria and one Continental Coupe

Cadillac; 1 - One Town Car

Rolls-Royce; 1 - One Town Car for H.C. (Harry) Orndorff

Dymaxion; 2 -  Two 4-pass teardrop-shaped passenger car bodies for Buckminster Fuller

HAF Special; 1 - Speedster body and fuel tanks for Harry A. Falt’s HAF Special, a Lycoming powered, L-29 Cord-derived front-wheel-drive special that was entered in, but failed to qualify for, the 1933 Indianapolis 500.

Grand total;  296

Note: Passenger Cars only - does not include bus and commercial bodies built by Waterhouse during the same period.

Of the 296 bodies that were built, just under 10% - or 28 are known to exist. The following list of survivors was compiled by Larry Waterhouse:

1. 1929 duPont 8, G, Club Sedan (unrestored)
2. 1929 duPont 8,G, 5 pass. Sedan
3. 1929 duPont 8, Convertible Roadster
4. 1929 duPont 8, Convertible Coupe
5. 1929 duPont 8, Convertible Coupe
6. 1930 duPont 8, Convertible Victoria
7. 1930 Packard 8, 745 Convertible Victoria
8. 1930 Packard 8, 745 Convertible Victoria
9. 1930 Packard 8, 745 Convertible Victoria
10. 1930 Packard Deluxe 8, 745 Convertible Victoria
11. 1930 Packard 8, 745 Convertible Victoria
12. 1931 Packard Super 8, 840 Convertible Victoria
13. 1931 Packard 8, 840 Convertible Victoria
14. 1931 Packard Super 8, 845 Convertible Victoria
15. 1931 Packard 8, 845 Convertible Victoria
16. 1932 Packard, 904 Sport Sedan
17. 1931 Chrysler 8, CG Imperial Convertible Victoria
18. 1931 Chrysler 8, CG Imperial Convertible Victoria
19. 1931 Chrysler 8, CG Imperial Convertible Victoria (unrestored)
20. 1931 Lincoln 8, K Convertible Victoria
21. 1930 Pierce Arrow 8, model B Convertible Victoria
22. 1932 Marmon 16, 4-door Phaeton Touring
23. 1932 Marmon 16 4-door Convertible
24. 1933 Stutz DV32 Convertible Victoria

© 2004 Mark Theobald -  with special thanks to Larry Waterhouse






S. Roberts Dunham - The Waterhouse Story Pt I – The Classic Car, June 1969

S. Roberts Dunham - The Waterhouse Story Pt II – The Classic Car, Sep 1969

Roger Clapp and M. Sargent Waterhouse - The Waterhouse Story Pt III – The Classic Car, December 1969

James Quinlan  - An Interview with Charles L Waterhouse – The Classic Car, June 1973

Stan Smith  - Waterhouse & duPont: An Introduction - The Classic Car June 1983

Don Butler - Mystery Chrysler:  Imperial CG Speedster by Waterhouse - the Classic Car, March 1984

Hugo Pfau -  The Waterhouse Company– Cars & Parts – June 1974

Josiah Work - Chrysler Imperial By Waterhouse: Vivacious Victoria - Special Interest Autos #116, April 1998

Walter E. Gosden - Unmistakably Waterhouse: A Recognized Reputation For Smart Sport Models – Automobile Quarterly Vol. 26 No. 2

Beverly Rae Kimes - Waterhouse of Webster: A Coachbuilding Tale - Automobile Quarterly - Vol. 44 No. 4

Fred Roe - Waterhouse Revisited  - New England Classic Quarterly – First Quarter 2003

Waterhouse Built 6 Of These Imperials - Old Cars Weekly

Briggs Weaver - Racecar Design - Road & Track, September 1957

Karl Ludvigsen - Cunningham Sports Cars: American Racing Legends 1951-1955,

Beverly Rae Kimes - The Classic Car

Beverly Rae Kimes - The Classic Era

Beverly Rae Kimes - Packard: A History of the Motorcar and Company

Beverly Rae Kimes & Henry Austin Clark Jr. - Standard Catalog of American Cars 1805-1942

Richard Burns Carson - The Olympian Cars

Marc Ralston - Pierce Arrow

Brooks T. Brierley - There Is No Mistaking a Pierce Arrow

Brooks T. Brierley - Auburn, Reo, Franklin and Pierce-Arrow Versus Cadillac, Chrysler, Lincoln and Packard

Brooks T. Brierley - Magic Motors 1930

Nick Georgano - The Beaulieu Encyclopedia of the Automobile: Coachbuilding

Marian Suman-Hreblay - Dictionary of World Coachbuilders and Car Stylists

Michael Lamm and Dave Holls - A Century of Automotive Style: 100 Years of American Car Design

Thomas E. Bonsall - The Lincoln Motorcar: Sixty Years of Excellence

Fred Roe - Duesenberg: The Pursuit of Perfection

John Webb De Campi - Rolls-Royce in America

Hugo Pfau - The Custom Body Era

Hugo Pfau - The Coachbult Packard

George H. Dammann & James K. Wagner - The Cars of Lincoln-Mercury

George H. Dammann - Seventy Years of Chrysler

Walter M.P. McCall - 80 Years of Cadillac LaSalle

Maurice D. Hendry - Cadillac, Standard of the World: The complete seventy-year history

George H. Dammann & James A. Wren - Packard

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