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Reading Metal Body Co.
Reading Metal Body Co. 1904-1905, Reading, Pennsylvania; 1905-1910, Fleetwood, Pennsylvania
Associated Firms
Keystone Wagon Works, Fleetwood Metal Body Co.

Incorporated in the state of Pennsylvania on January 1, 1905, the Reading Metal Body Company produced early composite aluminum-clad bodies for a handful of regional automakers which included Acme, Chadwick, Duryea, Garford, Matheson, Palmer-Singer, Premier and Studebaker (Studebaker-Garford). The firm specialized in limousines, town car and closed bodies and would occasionally construct bespoke bodies, one known example being a limousine body on a 1906 Rochet-Schneider 80 h.p. chassis.

The text from the firm‘s first-known display advertisement was included in the December 1904 issue of the Cycle and Automobile Trade Journal:

“WILL THIS INTEREST YOU? ALUMINUM AND SHEET STEEL BODIES AT LOWER PRICES AND BETTER THAN YOU CAN BUY ELSEWHERE OR MAKE FOR YOURSELF. Our 1905 styles are just what you have been looking for. Graceful lines, and plenty of room and comfort. Briefly, they are - High in Quality and Finish - Low in Weight and Price - If you have ideas of your own send us drawings, or if you want us to get you up something special we will submit blue prints. We want your orders and can convince you we merit them. READING METAL BODY CO. Reading, Pa.”

The firm commenced business at the corner of 7th Ave. and Spruce St., Reading, Penn., adjacent to a siding of the Phildelphia and Reading Railroad. The plant was located one block away from the former Acme Mfg. /Acme Motor Car Co. factory, two firms which Reading Metal Body’s president, James C. Reber, had earlier been associated with.

James Calvin Reber was born on June 22, 1868 in Adams, Pennsylvania to James Tobias (b. Apr. 29, 1834) and Sarah (Potteiger) Reber. To the blessed union were born six children: C. Alice; Clara R.; Valeria E.; Benjamin F.; Morris B.; James C. Reber. He started his career working as a clerk for Bard, Reber & Co., cor. Eighth and Penn Sts., a prosperous Reading hardware store owned by his father James T. Reber.

On Sep. 22, 1892 James married Mary Jane Uhrich (b. July 29, 1867 in Myerstown, Lebanon County, Penn. to John and Jane P. [Leinbach] Uhrich) in Myerstown, Pa. and to the blessed union was born 3 children: John Uhrich (b.Oct. 6, 1893); Mary Uhrich (b. Feb. 1896) and James Valentine Uhrich (b. Feb. 1, 1898) Reber.

Soon after his marriage Reber got into the bicycle manufacturing business, forming the Metropolitan Cycle Co. with John G. Xander.  The firm's 'Neversink' bicycles were manufactured in a 4-story 40' x 100' factory located adjacent to the Philadelphia, Reading and Pennsylvania Railroad on Neversink Ave., Reading.

Reber's father got on board the bicycle craze and in 1894 the pair organized the Acme Bicycle Company, James T. serving as president and James C. as secretary and general manager. Acme manufactured the 'Pennant' and 'Stormer' bicycles (unrelated to the Acme Cycle Co. of Elkhart Indiana) until the firm's factory and machinery were destoryed by fire on March 24, 1897, causing aloss of $75,000. The Rebers entered into an agreement with the American Bicycle Co. who continued to construct Acme's Pennant and Stormer bicycles into 1899 while the plant was rebuilt.

It was during this time that Reber began to experiment with the automobiles, and by 1901 he had constructed the first 'Reber', a small carriage equipped with a two-cylinder, vertical engine. The Rebers formed the Reber Mfg. Co. and brought in Pittsburgh engineer James Haslett to design a car along the lines of the French imports, that were popular at the time.In January of 1903 Reber annopunced the introductino of the Reber, a 12 h.p. touring with a detachable tonneau.

The Rebers got Jakob Nolde and George D. Horst, the principals of Reading's Nolde & Horst hosiery mill, interested in the project and on July 9, 1903, the Acme Motor Car Co. filed articles of incoporation with the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania for the manufacture and sale of vehicles and motors. Victor Jakob, formerly with the Mercedes Company in Germany, was brought in as chief engineer and designer. The firm was announced tothe trade in the June 17, 1903 issue of Horseless Age:

“The Acme Motor Car Company have succeeded the Reber Manufacturing Company, of Reading, Pa., and have applied for incorporation with a capital stock of $200000. The officers are George D. Horst, president, and James C. Reber, treasurer and general manager.”

During 1904, Acme brought out a succession of models which included a one-cylinder runabout, two twin-cylinder runabouts (one a chain-drive model, and the other a bevel-gear, shaft-drive job, and a four-cylinder touring and a landaulet.

In June, 1905, Frank A. Devlin, a Chicago dry goods executive, bought out Nolde & Horst's shares in the firm. Within the year Acme was in receivership, and on July 9, 1907, the Acme Motor Company's assets were purchased by Herbert M. Sternbergh, who continued to manufactured small numbers of Acmes until 1911 when he formed the S.G.V. Co. with two partners; S.G.V. standing for Messrs. Herbert M. Sternbergh, Robert E. Graham, and Fred Van Tine.

For more details on the Acme and S.G.V, please click here.

By this time James C. Reber had left the firm he founded a decade earlier (Acme) in order to get into the automobile body business. Reading Body’s incorporation was announced to the trade via the following announcement in the July 20, 1905 issue of The Iron Trade Review:

“The Reading Metal Body Co., to manufacture parts of automobiles, will be incorporated in Pennsylvania with a capital of $25,000. The men interested are Charles S. Madeira, James C. Reber and Harry C. Urich.”

Charles S. Madeira (wife Elsie C.) was a Fleetwood-based textile manufacturer, who was involved with the following firms: Keystone Textile Co., Fleetwood Silk Co., Madeira & Wanner Hosiery Mill, Olseh Hosiery Mill, and the Pennsylvania Dye & Bleach Works. He also served as Fleetwood’s Postmaster between 1908 and 1913.

Charles S. Madeira was born on January 10, 1876 at Kutztown, Pennsylvania to William H. and Clara (Hoch) Madeira. After a public education in the borough schools he attended Keystone Normal School at Kutztown and the West Chester State Normal School. Upon reaching his majority he served as a clerk in the offices of the York Silk Mills after which he was connected with the N.S. Schaeffer & Co., of Fleetwood.

In 1900 he established a hosiery mill at Lyons, Pennsylvania in partnership with Fleetwood resident Charles A. Wanner. Business improved and the partners relocated to a new two-story frame building located alongside the East Penn Railroad in Fleetwood whose 80 hands produced 450 dozen pairs of seamless hosiery per day. In 1905 Madeira became a partner in the Pennsylvania Dye & Bleach Works at New Cumberland and the Reading Metal Body Company, which he assisted in bringing to Fleetwood and during its peak employed 100 hands.

Harry C. Urich (b.1867-d.1941) was born in Kutztown, Pennsylvania, on October 2, 1867 to John W. (b.1841-d.1899) and Mary A. (Price, b.1840-d.1916) Urich. His father was a cabinetmaker and after completing his public education at the age of 14, Harry was apprenticed to a blacksmith in Stouchsburg, PA, just east of Lebanon.

His apprenticeship complete, he was hired as a journeyman at the Metropolitan Cycle / Acme Bicycle Co. in Reading, which was owned by James C. Reber. Urich was eventually made Acme’s plant manager and in 1890 married Emma N. Mattes. Although Reber’s wife Mary (nee Uhrich) may have been related to Harry C. Urich, I couldn’t discover a direct connection, and though pronounced the same, their surnames were spelled differently. Urich remained with Reber’s business enterprise which experienced a number of named changes during the ensuing years from Metropolitan Cycle Co. to Acme Cycle Co., to the American Bicycle Co. and finally the Reber Mfg. Co.

When the bicycle business went belly-up just after the turn of the century Urich became associated with the recently organized Central Foundry & Machine Co. as general manager, the March 1901 issue of The Foundry reporting:

“The Central Foundry & Machine Co., of Reading, Pa., has been incorporated with a capital of $7,000. L.M. Francis. H.C. Urich, E.L. Francis, P.A. Bushong and J. H. Cheatham are the incorporators.

“The Central Foundry & Machine Co., Reading, Pa., recently incorporated, will occupy the old plant of the Reading Scale and Machine Co. A three-story and basement brick office and storehouse 30x40 feet will be erected, which will be equipped with an elevator and other conveniences. New machinery will be installed in the machine shops, the machines in the pattern shop improved, and the plant otherwise equipped with the latest appliances for the manufacture of castings, engines, boilers, scales, shafting, general mill supplies, etc. Levi M. Francis is president and Harry C. Urich general manager.”

12 miles to the northeast a committee was trying to find an occupant for the recently vacated Fleetwood Foundry and Machine Works, the May 1901 issue of the Foundry reporting:

“The citizens of Fleetwood, Pa., are agitating the organization of a stock company to operate the Fleetwood Foundry and Machine Works.”

The Fleetwood Foundry dated to 1864 when Lewis, George D., Jonathan, and Daniel Schaeffer embarked upon the manufacture of farm implements, steam engines and turbines in a brick structure located on S. Franklin St. In 1867, Lewis’s share in the business was acquired by Charles Melcher with the firm being known as Schaeffer, Meicher & Co. until 1872 when William S. Merkel replaced Charles Melcher in the style of Schaeffer, Merkel & Co.

Plant operations grew and eventually developed to the point of having a filing department, machine shop, blacksmith shop, planing mill and tinsmith shop. By the 1880's, the business employed 200 hands, its property spread over three acres and a railroad siding. Fleetwood brand wagons were added to the mix of products as was the Schaeffer-Merkel Grain Separator. During the ensuing years the Schaeffers retired from the firm and it subsequently entered into receivership. In 1899 Schaeffer, Merkel & Co.’s assets were purchased by Herman F.L. Rummel of Reading, who reorganized it in 1902 as the Fleetwood Foundry and Machine Co., its incorporation being listed in the 1902 Pennsylvania Charter of Corporations as follows:

“Fleetwood Foundry and Machine Company – Fleetwood, March 14, 1902. Capital, $50,000. For the purpose of the manufacture and repair of agriculture implements, metal castings, patterns and machinery and other articles of commerce from metal and wood.”

A fire destroyed a substantial portion of the works on December 22, 1904 and in July of 1905 Rummel sold the property to J.W. Johnson of Reading, Pa., and Ephriam Hartman of Oley, Pa., the July 1905 issue of the Foundry reporting:

“The entire property of the Fleetwood Foundry & Machine Co., of Fleetwood, Pa., with the exception of one building previously sold, has been disposed of to J.W. Johnson of Reading, Pa., and Ephriam Hartman of Oley.”

In 1902, Reber’s long-time friend Harry C. Urich took a job with the Fleetwood Foundry & Machine Company, remaining with the firm until the fire struck. Shortly thereafter the 3-story frame structure adjoining the East Penn Railroad siding on W. Franklin St. was leased to the Reading Metal Body Co. and Urich joined Reber and his partner Charles S. Madeira, as plant manager and treasurer.

The July 26, 1905 issue of the Reading Eagle announced that the firm had leased a portion of the former Schaeffer & Merkel foundry bordering the East Penn Railroad in Fleetwood:

“Fleetwood News:

“A New Industry

“The Reading Metal Body Company, who will locate in the large warehouse of the old foundry (Schaeffer & Merkel foundry), has a number of men at work getting things in shape. A new boiler and engine were erected and they expect to start work about Aug 1.”

The List of Charters of Corporations Enrolled in the Office of the Secretary of the Commonwealth during the two years beginning June 1, 1905 and Ending May 31, 1907 reveals the firm was re-incorporated in Reading on August 5, 1905:

“READING METAL BODY COMPANY—Fleetwood, August 5, 1905. Capital, $25,000. The manufacture of iron or steel or both, the manufacture and sale of automobiles and parts thereof, castings, machinery, tools, specialties of iron and steel and other iron, steel or metal products of similar or cognate character.”

Most of the firm’s early work was for regional automakers which included Chadwick, Duryea, Matheson, and Palmer-Singer. The firm specialized in composite aluminum-bodied limousines, town cars and closed bodies and would occasionally construct bespoke bodies, one of which was mentioned in the June 27, 1906 issue of the Horseless Age:

“A Luxurious Touring Body.

“The Reading Metal Body Company, of Fleetwood, Pa., have recently completed a sheet aluminum body for one of the biggest touring cars in use in this country— an 80 horse power Rochet-Schneider belonging to E. N. Dickerson, a New York lawyer. The car is over 15 feet in length, and weighs 4,200 pounds, its maximum carrying capacity being ten persons. The body is of special design, and can be used in different ways according to the weather and the number of occupants, either entirely closed or open, with the glass sides removed and the roof forming a canopy, or an extension top over the rear. The entire body is made of aluminum, 1-16th of an inch thick. The advantage of this metal over wood is claimed to be that there is no cracking or warping, and it would come out of a collision with much less damage than would a wooden body. It is also said to be fully 300 pounds lighter than the old type. The body is painted a royal blue, and the chassis or running gear is azure blue.

“The interior of the cab, with its French bevel plate glass sides and front, is gorgeously finished and fitted out. All the woodwork is Dutch mahogany. It is upholstered in goat skin with morocco grain. The ceiling is satin, and black silk curtains hang at the windows. Three persons can sit on the rear seat, two on the front seat, and there are two revolving chairs. The fixtures include a card table, secretary, sideboard, hat rack, umbrella stand, toilet case, ash trays, clock, mirror, toilet articles, incandescent electric lights, etc. A handsome carpet covers the floor. Speaking tubes and enunciator permit of communicating with the chauffeur. The cab is 62 inches wide, 64 inches high and 96 inches long. There is a place for baggage on the roof, and a trunk rack is on the rear.”

Although the firm’s mechanics were competent in the construction of open bodies, it was the firm’s closed coachwork that comprised the bulk of its work, and they advertised regionally for specialist in the field, as evidenced by a classified ad in the September 19, 1906 issue of the Lebanon Daily News:

“Wanted – Four First Class body makers on Limousine and Landaulet bodies. Address Reading Metal Body Co. Fleetwood, Pa.”

In early 1907 James C. Reber took a haitus from his responsibilities in Fleetwood to return to Reading and take charge of the floundering Keystone Wagons Works, a firm deeply indebted to the Reading National Bank of which his father served as president, the March 1907 issue of the Carriage Monthly reporting:

“Manufacture of High-Grade Wagons.

“The Keystone Wagon Works, Reading, Pa., have elected the following officers: Edward C. Nolan, president; Robert E. Brooke, vice-president; John L. Coxe, secretary and treasurer, and James C. Reber, general manager. It is the purpose of the Keystone Wagon Co. to continue in the manufacture of high-grade wagons, together with the manufacture of automobile bodies, which business Mr. Reber, the new manager, has been in for a number of years, being the president and general manager of the Reading Metal Body Co.”

The April 23, 1907 issue of the Reading Eagle announced Reber’s appointment as manager of the Keystone Wagon Works to the locals:

“Keystone Wagon Works Making Auto Bodies.

“A busy industry is the Keystone Wagon Works, at Third street and the Lebanon Valley Railroad. About a month ago the manufacture of auto bodies was started and a large number of them are turned out weekly. This is an entirely new line and has proved quite a success.

“James C. Reber is the manager of the plant. He assumed charge about a month ago. Mr. Reber has had considerable experience in the manufacture of auto bodies, having a plant at Fleetwood. It is the intention of management of the works to eliminate the manufacture of light buggies and heavy coal wagons and to manufacture only business wagons and auto bodies. Every department is working full handed and the outlook is very encouraging.”

The decision by Keystone Wagon’s directors to abandon their lucrative coal wagon business in order to make composite automobile bodies was a bad one. Despite having an experienced man in charge, a lack of orders combined with the loss of coal wagon revenue proved insurmountable and the December 1907 edition of The Carriage Monthly reported on the firm’s November bankruptcy filing:

“Keystone Wagon Works Succumb.

“The wagon department of the Keystone Wagon Co., Reading, Pa., has been shut down indefinitely, according to report. The company's action affects 200 men. The automobile department is still in operation, along conservative lines. James C. Reber, general manager of the company, when interviewed by the local press, is reported to have said: "Our customers have asked us to defer shipment on their orders for several months, and this has left us with very few orders on hand for immediate shipment. This will affect 200 employees. We are going very slow in the manufacture of our automobile bodies, this department employing 30 men."


“It has just been announced that John L. Coxe has been appointed receiver for the Keystone Wagon Works. It is said that the debts amount to $169,000. The capitalization of the concern is $400,000.”

Back in Fleetwood, things were going smoothly for Reading Metal Body who at the time employed 125 hands, the ‘Fleetwood News’ section of the May 11, 1908 issue of the Reading Eagle, announcing the firm had recently shipped two railcars full of auto bodies:

“Shipped Carloads of Bodies to Wilkes-Barre and Indiana

“The Reading Metal Body Company, of this place, shipped a carload of auto bodies to the Matheson Auto Company, at Wilkes-Barre, and a carload to the Premier, at Indianapolis, Ind. The outlook for business for the firm is good, as more orders are booked.

“Chadwick bodies were built by the Reading Metal Body Company to Chadwick design and specification, until Harry Roumig, a foreman with Reading Metal Body, left to start his own business in the nearby village of Fleetwood and secured the Chadwick contract.”

Geo. B. Schaeffer, a grandson of one of the founders of the Fleetwood Foundry, joined the firm as its secretary in 1907, as indicated by its listing in the 1908 Motor Cyclopedia:

“Reading Metal Body Co., Reading and Fleetwood, Pa. Mfrs. bodies. Cap. $25.000. Est. 1905. James C. Reber, Pres.; Harry C. Urich, Treas.; Geo. B. Schaeffer, Sec.”

The firm regularly advertised in the Horseless Age and Cycle and Automobile Trade Journal, a typical ad from the September 1908 issue is transcribed below:

“BODIES All styles, Tonneaus, Limousines, Landaulets, Glass Fronts. Our new '08 front folds toward the steering wheel etc. We can handle your order promptly, and save you money and annoyance. Write for Quotation on any car. Write us for information and prices. READING METAL BODY CO. FLEETWOOD. PA.”

A dispute between one of Reading’s clients and the Studebaker Co., initiated a series of events that resulted in the removal of the Reading Metal Body works to Elyria, Ohio. The client was the Garford Co. who from 1904-1911 constructed automobiles for the Studebaker dealer network. Studebaker collectors break the vehicles out under the Studebaker-Garford name because of the extent of Garford components. Under the agreement, Garford would assemble each chassis and then ship it to South Bend for completion where the chassis would be fitted with bodies supplied by Studebaker or E-M-F.

Garford marketed the same chassis, equipped with Reading coachwork, as the Garford automobile. The automobile market was expanding in 1910 and Garford began reserving more and more chassis for its dealers, creating a tenuous relationship with the Indiana manufacturer who was clamoring for more chassis. Studebaker rectified the situation in late 1910 through the purchase of E-M-F, thereby ending its nearly 7-year relationship with Garford.

If Garford was to compete successfully in the expanding automobile market they would require their own in-house body department. They had been purchasing closed bodies from Reading for a number of years, and being happy with their work, they decided to purchase the Fleetwood body works lock, stock and barrel and relocated it to Elyria. Beginning in 1909 Garford had begun the production of motor trucks which were sold alongside Garford Motor Cars across the country. Although Garford’s automobile were high quality, they soon discovered that the firm’s network of truck dealers were unprepared to sell enough Garford automobiles to make the operation profitable. Garford’s automobile business was subsequently sold off to John North Willys who merged it into the existing Willys-Overland operation. Arthur Garford retained his truck building operations and in 1915 relocated to Lima, Ohio where he enjoyed success for the next decade and a half.

The September 17, 1910 issue of the Lebanon Daily News announced the sale of the Reading Metal Body Co. to the citizens of Berks County:

“Fleetwood, Berks County, will lose its chief industry, the Reading Metal Body Manufacturing Company, which has been purchased by the Garford Company, and is now being removed to Elyria, O., and 150 men will be thrown out of employment in Reading.”

More details were included in the September 24, 1910 issue of the Kutztown Patriot:

“Big Industry Will Leave Fleetwood

“Reading Metal Body Co. Concern bought by Ohio Party – Will All Be Moved October 1 – One Hundred Of The Employees Will Leave With The Plant.

“The Big Plant of the Reading Metal Body Manufacturing Company, of Fleetwood, has been purchased by the Garford Company, of Elyria, Ohio, and is being moved to the latter place. Upwards of 150 men will be affected. Of this number about 100 will be taken with the company to Ohio and the moving of their families is now in progress. Several carloads of machinery have been sent to Elyria and the entire plant is expected to be in transit by the end of the month. The company has been making bodies for the Chadwick plant, in Pottstown, principally, and for other concerns in the eastern part of the country.

“The officers were: President, James C. Reber; treasurer, W. S. Wray, and secretary, Calvin Adam. The plant was in charge of Superintendent John H. Sizelan, who will go with the new company to Elyria, where he will be given a similar position. The buildings occupied by the local company were leased, and thus far no arrangements have been made for their disposition.

“The Garford Company is connected with the Studebaker chain of plants and produces a car under the firm's name. Heretofore the bodies were bought, but by purchase of the local plant a considerable amount of money is expected to be saved by the firm. The removal of the plant is a serious loss to Fleetwood, as it was the largest of the industrial establishments at that place. It will probably mean considerable loss to the business interests of the borough.”

The September 24, 1910 issue of Automobile Topics provided a few more details:

“The plant of the Reading Metal Body Manufacturing Company, which has been purchased by the Garford Company, of Elyria, Ohio, is being moved to that place, and about 100 of the 150 men employed in the plant will also move with their families and settle in the Ohio town. Several carloads of machinery are now in transit and the entire plant will be moved before the last of the month.

“The company has been making automobiles for the Chadwick Company, of Pottstown, principally, and for other concerns in the East. The officers of the company were: President, James C. Reber; treasurer, W. S. Wray, and secretary, Calvin Adam. The Garford Company is connected with the Studebaker chain of plants and produces a car under the firm's name. Heretofore the bodies were bought, but by the purchase of the Reading plant, which was located at Fleetwood, a few miles out of the city, there will be a considerable saving to the firm.”

A 1912 lawsuit reveals that Reading had been supplying closed bodies to the Palmer-Singer Automobile Co in New York, the March 7, 1912 issue of Motor World reporting:

“Jury Gives Verdict for Body Builders.

A verdict for $8,010.23, representing the sum of $7,468.75 due on an order for 25 automobile bodies, plus costs and interest, was given by a jury in the New York Supreme Court on Wednesday, 28th ult., in favor of the Reading Metal Body Co., of Fleetwood, Pa., against the Palmer & Singer Mfg. Co., of New York. In its defense the Palmer & Singer company alleged that the Reading company had no authority to transact business in the State of New York, being a foreign corporation and not specifically admitted to do business therein, but judgment for the full amount was rendered, nevertheless. A second suit for $793.25, alleged to be due on another order for bodies was dismissed by the court on a technical error, but is to be brought up again.”

A full year before Reading Metal Body Co. was relocated to Elyria, its general manager, Harry C. Urich, felt that the expanding automobile marketplace would require additional sources of composite metal bodies and on April 1, 1909 he organized a competing firm, the Fleetwood Metal Body Co. to meet the need. The firm leased the Fleetwood Planing Mill from its owner E.M. Hill and filed article so incorporation with the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania on May 9, 1909.

Fleetwood Metal Body Co.’s officers and stockholders were as follows: Harry C. Urich, President & General Manager; Nicholas J. Kutz, Secretary; and Alfred Schlegel, Treasurer. George J. Schlegel and Jacob Kern filled the two remaining seats on the five-member board of directors and Stephen Golubics and Ellsworth P. Urich were listed as shareholders.

Soon after the operation began, Fleetwood outgrew its 5000 square foot facility and added another 10,000 square feet to operate a planing mill in conjunction with the body business. An additional 10,000 square feet of floor space was added in 1910 and by 1912, the planing mill operation was discontinued and they moved into the former Reading Body Plant on Franklin Street, purchasing it 2 years later.

As Fleetwood is corporately unrelated to Reading it's story is covered elsewhere on the site. Like Reading, Fleetwood was eventually acquired by a major automobile manufacturer and relocated to Detroit. Harry C. Urich later served as secretary to the Fleetwood Hosiery Co. (1932) and he died in Myerstown, Pennsylvania on May 5, 1941.

The Benson Ford Research Center in Dearborn, Michigan has a 48 page catalog of Automobile Bodies, published by the Reading Metal Body Company in 1908.

© 2013 Mark Theobald for







Beverly Rae Kimes & Henry Austin Clark - Standard Catalog of American Cars: 1805-1942

Morton Montgomery - Historical and Biographical Annals of Berks County Pennsylvania, pub. 1909

Mercantile Illustrating Company - Reading, Its Representative Business Men, and Its Points of Interest, pub. 1893

Byron A. Vazakas - The Automobile Industry in Reading, Historical Review of Berks County; April, 1939, issue

Lorain County Historical Society - The Garford Story, pub 1977

Stuart Wells - Not on the way to anywhere, Fleetwood: The Early Years, Automobile Quarterly, Vol. 33, No.3

James J. Schild – Fleetwood: the Company and the Coachcraft, pub. 2001

Frank N. Potter - Phianna; Darling of the Titans, Upper Hudson Valley Automobilist; Vol. 12 No. 12, June 1962 issue

Frank N. Potter - Of Heart and Wheels , Antique Automobile, Vol. 42, Nos. 1-6, pub. 1978

Reading Metal Body Co - Automobile Body Catalog 48pp, pub. 1908

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