The Buffalo Body Corporation was a
body builder that constructed various types of motor coach bodies for
Model Z bus chassis. Early on the firm produced small numbers of closed
bodies for Packard, Fox, and other regional automobile manufacturers
and is known
to have constructed bodies for the Canadian-built Brooks steam-engined
(all 2 of them).
The firm was founded by Roy J. MacKenzie,
Pressed Steel Co. (b. Nov. 17, 1886 in
Cass City, Michigan) and Kenneth B. MacDonald, treasurer, Buffalo
Co. (b. 1879 in Buffalo, N.Y.).
Buffalo Pressed Steel Co. produced a popular
line of mufflers,
silencers and oil filters and were located at 778 Kensington Ave.,
Y. Roy J. MacKenzie was also president of the Arrow Tool Co., which was
in a portion of the Pressed Steel Co factory at 768 Kensington.
The two partners met while working at the E.
R. Thomas Motor
Co., and shortly after the Buffalo automaker went into receivership
and MacDonald went into business with Daniel H. Stoll, a small
manufacturer of metal-working
tools and machinery, the October 29, 1913 issue of Horseless Age
“D. H. Stoll Co. Incorporated.
“The D. H. Stoll Co., Inc., has been
incorporated to take
over the press, shear, dies and special metal working machinery
formerly conducted by Daniel H. Stoll, at Buffalo. N. Y.,
same name. The officers of the company are Daniel H. Stoll,
president; Roy J. MacKenzie, vice-president; Kenneth B. MacDonald,
The company makes a specialty of machinery for the production of sheet
automobile parts. Messrs. MacDonald and MacKenzie were formerly
the E. R. Thomas Motor Co., as factory manager and purchasing agent,
The March 2, 1916 issue of the Iron Trade
Review announced the
formation of Buffalo Pressed Steel Co. to the trade:
“BUFFALO — The Buffalo Pressed
Steel Co. has
been incorporated; $30,000 capital stock;
by D.H. Stoll, R.J. Mackenzie and K.B. MacDonald, to manufacture
iron, steel, aluminum,
copper and brass products.”
The October, 1916 issue of Electric Vehicles
Buffalo Pressed Steel Co. had leased the former J.R. Kiem steel mill:
“John R. Kiem's mill property on Kensington
N. Y., has been leased to the Buffalo Pressed Steel Company.”
Buffalo Pressed Steel‘s Roy J. MacKenzie
and Lucien L. Haas
held a number of US Patents related to sheet metal products such as
and other exhaust-related products. As the center of automobile
relocated to the Midwest MacKenzie established a satellite plant in
Ohio at N. Meridian Rd. During the 1930s most of the firm’s operations
transferred to Youngstown, its post-WWII officers being: Pres &
— Kenneth B. MacDonald; Exec V-P & Gen Mgr— John C. Stewart;
Myron E. Ullman; Purch Agt— L. Miller; Chief Engr — F. Hyatt; Accts —
An overabundance of skilled mechanics, raw
direct access to the Great Lakes made Buffalo an ideal location for
body building and in 1919 John S. Burdick, Locomobile’s chief body
it known that he was looking to get into the business on his own. In
of 1915 Kenneth B. McDonald had helped organize the Curtiss
Motor Corp. of Buffalo, and by War’s end had become quite wealthy.
to set Burdick up in business and in conjunction with MacKenzie formed,
Body Corp., which was announced to the trade in the September 13, 1919
“BUFFALO TO HOUSE NEW BODY COMPANY
“MacKenzie and MacDonald
Incorporate Buffalo Body
Corp. — Place Burdick in Charge of Engineering-Locate Plant.
“Buffalo aims to take its place as a
producing center for
automobile bodies along with other cities at present known for that
further west along Lake Erie. Such is indicated this week in the
of the Buffalo Body Corp., which in fact represents the
of plans upon which R. J. MacKenzie and K. B. MacDonald, owners of the
Pressed Steel Co., Inc., have been working for several months. Adequate
space for the new company’s immediate requirements, room to grow, and a
engineer of known capabilities are among the assets with which it
“In active charge of engineering activities,
the company has
placed John S. Burdick, who is made a vice-president. Burdick was body
for the Locomobile Company of America, prior to assuming his new duties
Buffalo. It is revealed that Burdick had planned to establish a body
manufacturing company of his own, a plan which he gave up in joining
connection. He has been with the company some weeks now, supervising
and in other ways preparing the new venture for its first steps. He
in close touch with developments in European body building practice, so
clients of the Buffalo organization may have all the best thought at
“The immediate purpose of the company is to
bodies. It has secured the property formerly belonging to the Buffalo
Furniture Co., reputed to lie in the heart of the city's best labor
containing about 150,000 square feet ready for immediate use. In
five and a half acres have been acquired for future expansion purposes.
this news it is made known, too, that the plans of the company are of
large proportions. It is expected that several separate manufacturing
will be established eventually, each given up to the manufacture of a
class or grade of body construction. In the optimistic views of the
founders, ‘Buffalo is to be made one of the real centers of the body
The September 27, 1919 issue of Automobile
that attorney William R. Daniels (b. Oct 9, 1875 in Buffalo), a
Hughson & Daniels, No. 602 D. S. Morgan Building, Buffalo was also
in the firm as secretary-treasurer:
“Buffalo Body Corp., Buffalo, N.Y. - To
bodies. Capital, $1,000,000. Incorporators: K.B. MacDonald, R.J.
Kenneth B. MacDonald served as president of
while MacKenzie remained President of Buffalo Pressed Steel. The Body
initial office was located at 500 Main St. after which it moved to 824
St., the former home of the American Seating Co., whose plant occupied
of land bordered by Seneca St. to the
south, Smith St. to the north, Lord St. to the west and Fillmore Ave.
to the east. The October
of the Automotive Manufacturer indicated the firm was planning to
bodies using steel:
“Buffalo (N.Y.) Body Corp., recently
organized with a
capital of $1,000,000 by K. B. McDonald, formerly of the
Aeroplane Co.; R. J. McKenzie. W. R. Daniels and others, has
completed arrangements for occupying the former plant of the American
Co., at Seneca and Lord streets and Fillmore avenue, which it will
the production of steel bodies.”
A number of men formerly associated with
joined the Buffalo Body works force. The October 1919 issue of
Topics announced the appointment of J. E. Nield, a former manager with
Motors Co. of Conn. a major supplier of Liberty engines to the Allies:
“Nield Joins Buffalo Body
“J.E. Nield, assistant general manager of
the Trego Motors
Co., has resigned to become associated in the manufacturing department
Buffalo Body Corp. In addition to his duty in this department he will
charge of purchases.”
E. T. Musson, another aircraft executive,
joined the firm as
vice-president of production, the December 1919 issue of the The
“E. T. Musson, formerly general manager
Co., has been made vice-president in charge of production of
Body Corp. Prior to his association with the Canadian Aeroplanes
Musson was superintendent of the Russell Motor Car Co., West Toronto,
Buffalo Body’s listing in the 1920 Buffalo
“Buffalo Body Corp. (K.B. Mac Donald,
pres.; R.J. MacKenzie, vice-pres.; William R. Daniels, secy.
and treas.) manfs automobile bodies, 125 Smith.”
“Burdick, John S. (M) vice-president In
engineering, Buffalo Body Corporation, 125 Hardwood Place,
Buffalo, N. Y.”
John S. Burdick was well-known amongst auto body
building circle and the fabulous closed bodies he had engineered fro
Locomobile, bright sinmilar comission to Buffalo Body, the June 1920
issue of the Automotive
Manufacturer annoucned that the firm was producing enclosed coachwork
“Buffalo Body Corporation, Buffalo, N.
of fine automobile bodies, has completed installation of additional
and is actively engaged on a large special order of enclosed bodies for
Packard Motor Car Company. They will employ several hundred additional
enclosed body builders at their plant at Buffalo.”
The 1921 Buffalo Directory reveals the firm was
also leasing space in the Buffalo Leather Co. plant at 125 Hardwood
“Buffalo Body Corp. (Kenneth B. Mac Donald,
pres.; R. J. Mac
Kenzie, vice-pres.; Charles F. Bronson, secy.; William R. Daniels,
manfs auto bodies, 125 Hardwood pl.”
John S. Burdick resigned his position as
charge of engineering in the fall of 1922, the October 19, 1922 issue
Oct. 16 - Burdick-Atkinson Corp. has been
Hamburg. N. Y., to manufacture steel wire springs for use in automobile
coachwork upholstery. John S. Burdick, formerly the vice-president and
of the Buffalo Body Corp., is the incorporator of the
Associated with Burdick, who is president and general manager, are
Frederic R. Atkinson
as vice-president and factory manager; Franklin R. Brown, treasurer and
Buffalo Body made small numbers of closed
bodies for the air
cooled Fox car which was built in Philadelphia, PA from 1922 to 1923.
bodies for the Fox came from Bridgeport Body, Derham, Fleetwood,
and Springfield Metal Body.
A December 5, 1924 fire destroyed one of the
firm's buildings that fronted on Smith Street, the January 1925 issue
of The Automotive
Manufacturer announcing the
firm was erecting a new building to replace it:
“Buffalo (N. Y.) Body Corp., 824 Seneca
arranging for the erection of a two story plant, 70x100 ft., to replace
portion of its works recently destroyed by fire with loss reported at
including equipment. Kenneth B. MacDonald is president.”
Business picked up considerably for the firm
arrival of the purpose-built Pierce-Arrow Model Z bus chassis. The
plant was ill-equipped to manufacture bus bodies and the firm
Buffalo Body to produce its standard coachwork. An attractive parlor
exhibited at the 1925 AERA (American Electric Railway Association)
show, the Commercial
Car Journal reporting:
“Two interesting buses will be exhibited by
Motor Car Company, consisting of two different types of bodies, one a
Parlor Car body built by the Buffalo Body Corporation of
York, and the other a Touring Bus, Pay-Enter type built by the
Company of Roslindale, Mass. Both are mounted on standard six-cylinder
Pierce-Arrow bus chassis.”
Buffalo Body Corp. was Pierce-Arrow’s
preferred bus body
builder and the firm included 6 Buffalo-built standard bodies in their
Bus Chassis Catalog as follows.
Type 1 - Standard Street Car Pay-Enter:
“For city and town work the standard street
type of body is especially adapted. Service such as this requires a
that is light in weight, with entrance low and wide, a door operated
little effort on the driver's part and a seating arrangement that
passengers to easily find a seat and leave quickly when arriving at
“In this body built by the Brown Body
requirements have been met in a most successful way. Brown bodies are
light in weight and strong. The seating arrangement is well designed,
door control, which is full ball-bearing, operates with ease.
“The window construction is a Brown patent
and is of
aluminum. The roof is so constructed that the windows raise up into the
They are adjustable to several heights. The three windows in the rear
stationary and are protected by guards.
“Details of Construction
“Seating Arrangements - Seats are of the
touring car type,
upholstered in genuine Brown Spanish leather, and arranged to give
room. The driver's seat is of the ventilated type. Longitudinal seats
optional over wheel housings. Push buttons are convenient to each seat
monitor bell at the left of the driver.
“Construction - Body construction is
especially sturdy, with
framework of second growth ash. Sills, pillars, rails and ribs are
put together with screws. Below the belt line the posts are 13 inches
center to center, which makes a rigid foundation for the paneling,
which is of
16 gauge aluminum, with each panel separate and easily removed for
“Roof - The roof is of 1-inch fir panel,
covered with No. 8
white duck, heavily painted. The interior shows the exposed bows, laid
panels. The curved sides will accommodate standard advertising cards.
“Heating Sysytem - The heating system is of
steel tubing heaters on each side of the body running full length, and
protected by perforated metal housings. A regulator is installed on toe
convenient to the driver.
“Exterior paint is in a twelve coat system,
colors except white and light red. A lacquer finish is also optional.
interior is finished with roof flat white and all mouldings and panels
light and finished with three coats of varnish. This aids in lighting.
are finished with two coats of shellac.”
Type 2 – De Luxe Sight-Seeing Bus With
“Designed for sight-seeing work among the
canyons that surround Salt Lake City, this Pierce-Arrow de luxe bus
possibilities of the adaption of Buffalo bodies to special work.
“The large plate glass windows found in the
roof are of
special interest, enabling overhead vision. Another feature of the roof
construction is the pull curtains in the interior which allow the glass
to be covered when not in use.
“A large fleet of these busses is now in use
in Salt Lake
City, being operated by the Pierce-Arrow Sightseeing Company. They are
in shining white enamel and each bus is individualized by a name that
typically ‘Utah’ such as: Bee Hive, Sego Lily, Seagull, Silver, Copper,
“Each bus has a front entrance and a
between two rows of upholstered seats. At the rear is an observation
similar to those found on Pullman observation cars. It is shaded with
and provided with revolving chairs.
“Details of Construction
“Lighting - Six dome lights are provided,
one tell-tale stop
light and four riding lights, with purple lens. Automatic step light is
at the service door. All lights are controlled by switches convenient
driver. Passengers may signal to driver by means of parallel cords at
which operate a buzzer. A cigar lighter is found in the rear.
“Roof - Constructed of cross bows, suitably
iron braces, with three ply veneer on top, insuring great strength and
The roof is then covered with heavy oil duck and painted.
“Eighteen plate glass windows, each 18"
provided, each extending as close to the outside of the roof as
“Seats - Seven seats, each seating two
provided in the main section of the bus. One large single chair is
to driver. Two longitudinal seats, each seating three people, are
wheelhousing. The single chair next to the driver and three rear chairs
revolving pedestals. This plan provides seats for 24 passengers and the
Type 3 – De Luxe Pay-Enter Motor Bus:
“Comfort of the most luxurious sort combined
practical advantages of the pay-enter body have made this de luxe
one of the most popular types on the market today.
“This vehicle offers the utmost in riding
facilitates fare collections, for all passengers when entering pass
front service door and by the driver's seat. The center aisle speeds up
and unloading, while the additional service doors and driver's door
handling passengers with the utmost efficiency.
“The Buffalo Body Corporation, builder of
fine bus bodies,
has, in the de luxe vehicle pictured on the obverse page, combined
exterior with strength and lightness of construction that sets a new
in coach craft.
“The purchaser has the option of a number of
which cover practically every type of installation where a pay-enter
motor bus is desired. Baggage space is provided either at the right of
driver, in the rear, or on the roof. Folding taxi seats are provided
baggage space is located inside, which allows this space to be used for
passengers when not required for baggage.
“Details of Construction
“Frames - Body frames are rigidly built of
tough white ash,
substantially reinforced with forgings. All joints are glued, screwed
together. When two pieces of wood which are not glued or wood and metal
joined together, a heavy coating of lead and oil is first applied.
applying panels, the frame is covered with wadding to prevent the
of rubbing or rumbling.
“Seats - Several types of seats are offered,
exceptionally roomy and comfortable with special springs and genuine
buffed leather used for cushions and seat backs.
“Heating - Heater pipes are drawn tubing
instead of the
usual iron pipe. More effective radiation is provided by this method.
exhaust is equipped with mufflers, insuring quietness in operation.
“Ventilation - Particular attention has been
ventilation, standard equipment consisting of four automatic roof
with two cowl vents, one on each side. All side windows drop into
including front quarter windows beside the driver. The one-piece
aids in maintaining effective ventilation.
“The service door control is located on the
left side and
convenient to the driver. An illuminated sign is installed over the
Lovejoy shock absorbers are installed in the rear. Five color
Type 4 – De Luxe Pay-Enter Bus for
“Built to the specifications of a railroad
executives, this type of de luxe pay-enter bus is of interest to bus
everywhere. A number of these busses were recently delivered to the New
Transportation Company, and were made in accordance with the plans of
company's transportation officials. They are especially designed for
“The bodies, built by the Buffalo Body
Corporation, are of
27 passenger capacity.
“They are equipped with four doors, a right
door, a front emergency door at the left of the driver, a baggage door
right rear and a left rear emergency door.
“The baggage space in the rear measures 40
3/8 inches long
and is 86 inches wide. This compartment is equipped with five folding
“Details of Construction
“Clear Vision - Clearness of vision is an
in the design of this body, as it is in all Buffalo bodies. Front doors
been set back farther than is customary in ordinary practice,
bulky wood pillar from obstructing the driver's vision and leaving only
slender stanchion supporting the windshield. This design also
another purpose, giving a wide unobstructed passageway for the entrance
exit of passengers.
“Seating - All seats are finished in dark
leather with the balance of the trim in artificial leather to match.
of special design, equipped with comfortable cushions and roomy enough
accommodate persons of any size. Structurally, they are made in the
same way as
the chairs in your living room.
“Channels - An unusual feature in the
Buffalo bodies is the use of light weight steel channels for the
body panels. These absolutely prevent drumming. As an additional
against noise, wadding is placed over the frame to prevent the
chafing or rumbling.
“Windows - Clear vision is provided for
setting the window pillars almost opposite the backs of seats, giving
an individual window. Windows are all in rust proof steel channels with
felt lining, insuring quietness.”
Type 5 - De Luxe Observation Coach:
“The Pierce-Arrow Observation Coach is an
striking beauty in coach-craft, with appointments raised to such a
luxury that it more closely resembles a private owned equipage than a
service vehicle. Although this particular coach is used by the United
Rubber Company for tire testing and special demonstration work, busses
type are meeting with particular favor, especially in California where
used for long distance sight-seeing trips.
“This de luxe type of bus contains
everything that adds to
enjoyment of the ride.
“Easy chairs, wide spacious windows that
uninterrupted view of the scenery, unequalled riding qualities and the
luxurious interior combine to give passengers a degree of comfort that
to the appointments of a Pullman Car.
“In this particular car a plate glass
"platform" with grilled railing gives passengers in the rear a full
view of the broad highway as it unrolls behind them. Chairs in the
front are of
the swivel type so that the passengers can sit in any position they may
An awning protects the rear seat passengers from the glare of the sun
a touch of distinction to the stern of this proud vehicle.
“A water cooler, fans, railing over the rear
for storing away luggage and other refinements are provided. The dash
of the exterior make it especially attractive.
“Details of Construction
“Frame - Constructed of tough white ash,
scientific methods, reinforced with forgings. Joints are glued or
together. After assembly, raw linseed oil is hand rubbed into frame to
“Panesl - Below belt 14 gauge aluminum,
above belt 16 gauge
“Lighting - Six dome lights are located
above seats, each
having a 20 candle power bulb. Two flush dome lights are located over
step lights at the service door, two rear marker lights, two tell stop
one emergency door tell light and one stop light are furnished. Dome
over the aisle are controlled by separate switches.
“Seating - Seating arrangements are for 11
driver. However, most any seating arrangement can be provided. Seats
individual cushions and individual seats.
“Doors - Two doors are provided, service
door at the front
and left hand emergency door.
“Curtains - Drape curtains of Sun fast
mohair, with color in
harmony with trim.
“Mouldings - Finish mouldings are of solid
walnut, Valspar finished and polished.”
Type 6 - The Caravan - A De Luxe Traveling
“The Caravan - a de luxe traveling home,
interesting adaption of the Pierce-Arrow bus chassis for use of the
owner. This special body, mounted on a Model Z 220 inch wheelbase
contains every convenience found in a modern home. The most ingenious
devices have been utilized to use every inch of space without cramping
“The main compartment has the luxury of a
room. Four comfortable arm chairs are provided for the owner and his
family. A Pullman
rug covers the floor. Book cases, reading lights, Pullman tables, even
are provided. All windows that drop are provided with adjustable copper
screens. The arm chairs become comfortable berths at night with Pullman
curtains shielding the occupants.
“In the back of the traveling home are found
the kitchen and
bath room. The kitchen is equipped for all kinds of cooking and
refrigerator. The bath room is complete with folding wash basin, shower
and toilet. A 30 gallon tank located beneath the floor furnishes the
supply. The pressure is supplied by the engine.
“Details of Construction
“Cabinets - Two large cabinets are found in
home. One, on the right hand side, is a clothes closet and is equipped
hinged doors with full length mirrors in each door. The one on the left
contains a chest of drawers. The cabinets are made of American black
“Floors - Floors are covered with linoleum
with a rug in the
main compartment. Drape curtains of Sunfast rep are used in the main
compartment. This car is trimmed with an uncut plush with artificial
above the belt line. Head room from floor to inside of roof is 70
“Equipment - Equipment includes bumpers,
search light, marker lights, windshield cleaner, rear vision mirror.
“Body - Body is constructed of tough white
ash with thick
aluminum panels. Braces are of forged steel or malleable iron. Roof
of heavy oil duck. Heating is through 2 inch tubing, completely
controlled by valve.”
One of Buffalo Body’s Caravan private
coaches was featured
in the July 12, 1925 issue of the Kansas City Star:
“‘The Caravan’ is a Complete Motorized Home
“A traveling home, mounted on a Pierce-Arrow
complete even with shower bath and radio, has just been finished for
R. Connable, formerly managing director of the F. W. Woolworth Company
Canada, who, with his family, will take a 3-year tour in this luxurious
that will cover Canada, the United States and part of the British Isles.
“‘The Caravan’, the name given by Mr.
Connable to his
traveling home, contains all the conveniences that are found in a modem
Four upholstered chairs, used as seats in the daytime, are made into
comfortable beds at night, with the aid of air mattresses. These chairs
also be transformed into lounges, capable of seating sixteen persons.
berths in the form of hammocks form part of the equipment. Thus, six
are provided with comfortable sleeping quarters.
“Complete equipment for cooking is found
within the bus,
which carries an electric stove and refrigerator. In one corner of the
bathroom, complete with shower bath, toilet and washstand. A 40-gallon
slung underneath the rear end furnishes the water supply.
“One of the many interesting things in the
car is the
arrangement of the wall panels. These are of walnut and fold flat
side. When desired, the traveling home can be completely separated into
dressing rooms, provided with full length mirrors. A radio with
concealed in the ceiling of the bus is another feature.
“Bookcases, a compartment fitted with
hangers that will hold
thirty suits or dresses, Pullman tables for dining or playing cards,
that slide into place when the windows are lowered - these are other
“‘The Caravan’ is finished outside with two
tones of blue - with
body beading of silver. Single pneumatic tires in front and dual
rear provide comfort over the roughest roads.”
The firm displayed a 29-passenger De Luxe
at the 1926 AERA convention, Bus Transportation reporting:
“In the sightseeing class, the Buffalo
Corporation, Buffalo, N. Y., exhibited a 29-passenger job on a
marked for Greeley Sightseeing Company, New York.”
A second Buffalo Body private coach,
constructed for Ollie O.
Norwood, a municipal securities broker in Austin, Texas, was described
in the June
1927 issue of the Elm Tribune, the journal of Buffalo’s Elm Vocational
“$30,000 Touring Home is Built for
“Most Complete Bus of Its Kind Constructed
“What is described as the most elaborate and
touring home ever built has just been constructed by two Buffalo firms
Norwood of Austin, Texas, a guest at the Hotel Statler. The mansion on
cost between $25,000 and $30,000, and contains every device possible
comfort of its occupants.
“The body, finished in three shades
blue, is mounted on a Pierce-Arrow bus chassis, with a wheelbase of 220
The body itself was especially designed and constructed by the officers
engineers of the Buffalo Body Corporation and took 10 month to design
construct. The equipment includes an altimeter, reading lights, radio
wardrobe with full-length French mirrors, lavatory and shower bath,
stove and refrigerating plant, and a kitchen and bath in white enamel.
in the living room is of American black walnut, rubbed, to a semi-piano
“The living quarters are toward the front
end. The driver's
seat can be folded down making a bed for two persons. Seats, for four
in the living room can be converted into two beds at night. Each bed is
equipped with an all mattress and pillows. The latest type vacuum
shock absorbers insure the comfort of the owner and his guests when the
room forsakes the main thoroughfares for the byways.
“Mr. and Mrs. Norwood, accompanied by two
guests, will motor
to New York, Washington, Pittsburgh, Chicago, Yellowstone National
Seattle, Portland, San Francisco, Fresno, Los Angeles, Hot Springs and
Austin. The construction of the vehicle was done under, the supervision
Harry A. Shaw, and Ernest S. Cook of the Buffalo Body Corporation.”
In the summer of 1927, a prototype Brooks
Steam Bus was
bodied with a 29-passenger parlour car-style body by Buffalo Body Corp.
aluminum-bodied coach was fitted with blue leather seats and was shown
at the October
1927 AERA convention in Cleveland. A second Brooks steam bus was fitted
Buffalo Body coachwork in July of 1929, this one was a Meritas-bodied
pay-enter type fashioned after a popular ACF coach called the
By that time Pierce-Arrow had halted a truck and
bus chassis production and Buffalo Body turned to the producion of
municipal hearse and ambulance bodies, its
the 1929 Chilton’s Directory follows:
“Buffalo Body Corp., 600 Smith St., Buffalo,
N. Y. (Hearse
Unfortunately it was unable to withstand the
early stages of the Depression and withdrew from business sometime in
© 2013 Mark Theobald for