Andrew F. Johnson

    Andrew F. Johnson (1854-1943) was a pioneer in the design of early automobiles and a respected teacher in the field, is one focal point of the show. Johnson started work in west Gray, apprenticed in the sleigh and carriage factory of Smith & Leslie, and later studied in New York at the Technical School of the National Association of Carriage Builders. Later, he won a scholarship to the Albert Dupont School in Paris, France.

In 1918, after 26 years as teacher and principal of the Technical Institute, working in New York and Detroit, he moved back to him hometown of Gray, Maine. From his home there, he ran a correspondence school in automobile design. He and his students won many awards for their work.

Among his 2,500 students were the Fisher brothers, of "Body by Fisher" fame.

A copy of the correspondence course can be found at:



For more information please read:

Cyril R. Brooks - Trimming Motor Vehicles - Spon & Chamberlain, 1934

George J. Mercer and R.P. Williams - Motor Body Designing Problems, Ware Bros. 1931

R.B. Birge & Hugh M. Sargent - Practical Problems for Vehicle Draftsmen and Mechanics - Ware Bros., 1912

Albert T. Innis - Coach & Motor Trimming - C. Lockwood and Son, 1932

Vehicle Trimming : A Compilation of articles on the Trimming of Automobiles, Motor Trucks, Carriages and Wagons. Ware Bros., 1913

Kingston Forbes, M.E. - The Principles of Automotive Body Design,  Ware Bros., 1922

J. Dewar McLintock - Modern Coach and Motor Trimming - Technical Press, 1951

G. Mortimer - Coach: Automobile Trimming Part 1 - International Ideas, 1970

J.R. Whipple - Evaluation of Automobile Body Design - SAE, 1963

C.W. Terry - Practical Motor Body Building - E. & F.N. Spon, 1921

Robert W.A. Brewer - Motor Car Construction - C. Lockwood and Son, 1928

Frank Xavier Morio - Automobile Pattern Drafting - U..P.C., 1922

Elkanah Herman Brill - Automobile Body Drafting and Sheet Metal Stamping

Frederick E. Hoadley - Automobile Design Techniques and Design Modeling: the Men, the Methods, the Materials

Ian Beattie - The Complete Book of Automobile Body Design - Foulis/Haynes, 1973

Biographies of Prominent Carriage Draftsmen - Carriage Monthly, April 1904

Marian Suman-Hreblay - Dictionary of World Coachbuilders and Car Stylists

Daniel D. Hutchins - Wheels Across America: Carriage Art & Craftsmanship

Marian Suman-Hreblay - Dictionary of World Coachbuilders and Car Stylists

Michael Lamm and Dave Holls - A Century of Automotive Style: 100 Years of American Car Design

Nick Georgano - The Beaulieu Encyclopedia of the Automobile: Coachbuilding

George Arthur Oliver - A History of Coachbuilding

George Arthur Oliver - Cars and Coachbuilding: One Hundred Years of Road Vehicle Development

Hugo Pfau - The Custom Body Era

Beverly Rae Kimes - The Classic Car

Beverly Rae Kimes - The Classic Era

Richard Burns Carson - The Olympian Cars

Brooks T. Brierley - Auburn, Reo, Franklin and Pierce-Arrow Versus Cadillac, Chrysler, Lincoln and Packard

Brooks T. Brierley - Magic Motors 1930

James J. Schild - Fleetwood: the Company and the Coachcraft

John R. Velliky - Dodge Brothers/Budd Co. Historical Photo Album

Stephen Newbury -  Car Design Yearbook 1

Stephen Newbury -  Car Design Yearbook 2

Stephen Newbury -  Car Design Yearbook 3

Dennis Adler - The Art of the Sports Car: The Greatest Designs of the 20th Century

C. Edson Armi - The Art of American Car Design: The Profession and Personalities

C. Edson Armi - American Car Design Now

Penny Sparke - A Century of Car Design

John Tipler - The World's Great Automobile Stylists

Ivan Margolius - Automobiles by Architects

Jonathan Bell - Concept Car Design

Erminie Shaeffer Hafer - A century of vehicle craftsmanship

Ronald Barker & Anthony Harding - Automobile Design: Twelve Great Designers and Their Work

John McLelland - Bodies beautiful: A history of car styling and craftsmanship

Frederic A. Sharf - Future Retro: Drawings From The Great Age Of American Automobiles

Paul Carroll Wilson - Chrome Dreams: Automobile Styling Since 1893

David Gartman - Auto Opium: A Social History of American Automobile Design

Nick Georgano - Art of the American Automobile: The Greatest Stylists and Their Work

Matt Delorenzo - Modern Chrysler Concept Cars: The Designs That Saved the Company

Thom Taylor - How to Draw Cars Like a Pro

Tony Lewin & Ryan Borroff - How To Design Cars Like a Pro

Doug DuBosque - Draw Cars

Jonathan Wood - Concept Cars

D. Nesbitt - 50 Years Of American Auto Design

David Gartman - Auto Opium: A Social History of American Automobile Design

Lennart W. Haajanen & Karl Ludvigsen - Illustrated Dictionary of Automobile Body Styles

L. J. K Setright - The designers: Great automobiles and the men who made them

Goro Tamai - The Leading Edge: Aerodynamic Design of Ultra-Streamlined Land Vehicles

Brian Peacock & Waldemar Karwowski - Automotive Ergonomics

Bob Thomas - Confessions of an Automotive Stylist

Brooke Hodge & C. Edson Armi - Retrofuturism: The Car Design of J Mays

Gordon M. Buehrig - Rolling sculpture: A designer and his work

Henry L. Dominguez - Edsel Ford and E.T. Gregorie: The Remarkable Design Team...

Stephen Bayley - Harley Earl (Design Heroes Series)

Stephen Bayley - Harley Earl and the Dream Machine

Serge Bellu - 500 Fantastic Cars: A Century of the World Concept Cars

Raymond Loewy - Industrial Design

Raymond Loewy - Never Leave Well Enough Alone

Philippe Tretiack - Raymond Loewy and Streamlined Design

Angela Schoenberger - Raymond Loewy: Pioneer of American Industrial Design

Laura Cordin - Raymond Loewy


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